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*** Note: KnowYourInsects.org does its best to include correct identifications of insect photos. It’s always possible that we made a mistake, however, so if you see a misidentification, please contact us and we will correct it. Thanks!

Order Hemiptera: the true bugs — Examples
Note: The former classifications of Heteroptera and Homoptera are now included in the order Hemiptera. Now on THREE pages

Families represented — Page 1 (current page):
Suborder Heteroptera
Acanthosomatidae Alydidae Blissidae Coreidae Cydnidae Dinidoridae Heterogastridae Largidae Lygaeidae
Pentatomidae Plataspidae Pyrrhocoridae Rhopalidae Rhyparochromidae Scutelleridae Tessaratomidae Thyreocoridae
Page 2:
Suborder Heteroptera
Belostomatidae Corixidae Gelastocoridae Gerridae Miridae Nabidae Nepidae Notonectidae Reduviidae Tingidae
Page 3:
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha:
Acanaloniidae Aphalaridae Aphrophoridae Cercopidae Cicadellidae Cicadidae Cixiidae Clastopteridae Eurybrachidae
Flatidae Fulgoridae Issidae Membracidae Delphacidae Ricaniidae Tropiduchidae
Suborder Sternorrhyncha:
Aleyrodidae Aphidoidea Coccidae Monophlebidae Psyllidae


Coreidae (the leaf-footed bugs)

Giant mesquite bug (Thalus neocalifornicus)
Giant mesquite bug, female, Thasus neocalifornicus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The adult giant mesquite bug can grow to nearly 2 inches (5 cm) long. Its hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) have a thicker part with yellow veining, and a more membranous part with much finer veining, as seen in the above photo. Each antenna of the female has a flat, somewhat diamond-shaped disk, as shown. The male lacks the disk.
Photographed by: Deb Braatz. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Benson, Arizona, USA. Date: 12 July, 2020.
Deb says, “I thought it was beautiful, markings so striking.”
Giant mesquite bug (Thalus neocalifornicus)
Giant mesquite bug, nymph (immature), Thasus neocalifornicus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The nymphs of this giant mesquite bug can give off a bad-tasting secretion, and their bright colors warn bird predators to stay away. This is the only species in the genus Thasus to live in the United States.
Photographed by: Carol P. Byram. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Tucson, Arizona, USA. Date: 17 July, 2017.
Carol says, “I have a big old mesquite tree in the back yard. Funny I’ve never seen one of these before, as I’ve lived in this house 12 years.”
Giant mesquite bug (Thalus gigas)
Thasus gigas, nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The nymph of Thasus gigas has a black spot in the center its pronotum (the shield covering the thorax), a red or orange spot in the center of its scutellum, and a small black spot in the center of each whitish wing bud. The nymphs can get quite large (see the comment below).
Photographed by: Mark Magers. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: near Lake Chapala in Jalisco, Mexico. Date: 12 July, 2020.
Mark says, “About the size of my thumb.”
Giant mesquite bug, nymph (Thasus acutangulus)
Thasus acutangulus (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Nymphs can look different as they go through their development, and the nymphs of one species can look very similar to one another. This is true of species in the genus Thasus. Thasus acutangulus has a yellow-bordered, black pronotum (the shield covering the thorax), a red scutellum, and often just a rouch of orange or red at the outside of each wing bud. All of these features are visible in the above photo.
Photographed by: Tino Garcia. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Fortin de las Flores, Veracruz, Mexico. Date: 13 April, 2014.
Florida Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala thomasi)
Giant agave bug, nymph, Acanthocephala thomasi, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The blue metallic abdomen really stands out in these photos of a giant agave bug nymph, which the photographer estimates had a body length of about an inch (2.5 cm).
□ The adults are about the same size as the nymphs, but have wings covering the abdomen. To see the adults, click here (BugGuide). The male adult has beefy hind-leg femurs (thighs), each with at least one rather large spike. The female has a few smaller spikes and comparatively thinner femurs.
Photographed and identified to genus by: Mark Magers. Nicely done, Mark! Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Ajijic, Jalisco, Mexico. Date: 13 July, 2023.
Mark says, “I spotted this creature on our screen yesterday, and escorted him outside. He kept walking so I had a hard time getting a good focus!”
Insect facts
□ Would you like a list of all the “true bug”/Hemiptera families — in one handy place? We made one for you! To see it, click here.
Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ One characteristic feature of Acanthocephala terminalis is the orange tip on the end of each antenna.
Photographed and identified by: Leslie Mertz. Location: Kalkaska, Michigan, USA. Date: 8 July, 2012.
Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), pair, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ A careful look reveals a mating pair of Acanthocephala terminalis.
Photographed and identified to order by: Daisy Rulz. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Mayville, Michigan, USA. Date: Summer, 2017.
Daisy says, “Was unaware there were two at first. Just saw something dark on the leaf.”
Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Initially, KnowYourInsects.org thought this leaf-footed bug might be Leptoglossus oppositus (no specific common name) because of its reddish-brown coloration, but the scallop on the “leaf” of the hind leg looks more like that of Acanthocephala terminalis. It is a tough call! To see Leptoglossus oppositus, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed and identified to family by: Deborah Kindell. Identified to tentative species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: East Tennessee, USA. Date: September 2019.
Leaf-Footed Bug, Coreidae
Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Photographed by: Anne Fiore. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Spring Lake, Michigan, USA. Date: 3 August, 2014.
Leaf-footed bug nymph (Acanthocephala terminalis)
Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Acanthocephala terminalis does not show up in large numbers and is not a major pest, but it is rather sizable so it draws attention when it appears in a backyard. Its biology is little known.
Photographed and identified by: Tricia Bergstue and Jamie Haight. Nice job on the ID, Tricia and Jamie! “One cool leaf-footed insect nymph!” Location: Busti, Chautauqua County, New York, USA. Date: 4 July, 2014.
Leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), likely Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Compare this nymph of this leaf-footed bug to adjacent photos of Acanthocephala terminalis. This is a late instar, which means it is an older nymph and will soon metamorphose into an adult. Earlier instars look quite different.
Photographed by: Nikki Byer. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Etters, Pennsylvania, USA. Date: 1 September, 2019.
Leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), likely Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Leaf-footed bugs go through five stages, or instars, as nymphs before becoming an adult. The instars can look quite different. This is an early instar, quite possibly of the species Acanthocephala terminalis.
Photographed by: Michael J. Tapia. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: San Antonio, Texas, USA. Date: 18 May, 2020.
Leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), likely Acanthocephala terminalis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Some species of leaf-footed bugs, including Acanthocephala terminalis, have glands in the thorax that emit an odor that is repulsive to predators. A person who picks up one of these bugs may get a whiff of the strong odor.
Photographed and identified by: Andrew Feller. Excellent ID, Andrew! Location: Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA. Date: 12 July, 2020.
Florida Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala femorata)
Florida leaf-footed bug, nymph, Acanthocephala femorata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This gorgeous photo of a Florida leaf-footed bug nymph shows the detail on the abdomen, the red color on the legs and antennae, and even the fine white stripes on the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax).
Photographed by: Roxanne Elrod. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: central Alabama, USA. Date: 14 June, 2021.
Florida Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala femorata)
Florida leaf-footed bug, nymph, Acanthocephala femorata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Normally, six-legged insects walk by having three limbs on the ground at a time: foreleg and hindleg on one side, and middle leg on the other, which forms a stable tripod. This nymph of a Florida leaf-footed bug is missing one limb, but has adapted to get by with only five legs.
Photographed and identified by: Michelle Lindsey. Nicely done, Michelle! Location: Easley, South Carolina, USA. Date: 13 July, 2023.
Florida Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala femorata)
Florida leaf-footed bug, nymph, Acanthocephala femorata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ As shown in this photo, the nymph of the Florida leaf-footed bug is black with partially red to orange legs and a sharp-edged scalloping around the edge of its widened abdomen.
Photographed by: Margaret Molyson. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Georgia, USA. Date: 10 August, 2019.
Florida Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala femorata)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph, possibly a Florida leaf-footed bug Acanthocephala femorata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This photo was taken in North Carolina, which is the northern limit of the range for the Florida leaf-footed bug. See the comment below.
Photographed by: Donna Phillips. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Weaverville, North Carolina, USA. Date: summer, 2019.
Donna spotted in on a patio table, and says, “The little thing followed me when I moved around the table. I stepped back, and it jumped off the table onto the ground and continued following me! I guess it thought I was a really big food supply!!”
Florida Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala femorata)
Florida leaf-footed bug, male, Acanthocephala femorata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The male Florida leaf-footed bug (shown here) has considerably enlarged femurs on its hind legs. Each femur also has a spike that extends back from about the center of that enlarged femur. Both the enlarged femur and spine are visible in this photo.
Photographed by: Terry C. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Acworth, Georgia, USA. Date: 11 November, 2015.
Insect facts
Acanthocephala has a number of quite similar-looking species. To see the five species in the United States, click here and look under the "Identification" heading (BugGuide).
Giant leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The adult giant leaf-footed bug has a light-colored wash on its pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), but it is otherwise either brown or black. It has red antennae and feet, and flared tibiae (“shins”) on its hind legs. The flair can be seen with a careful look at the tibia on the right hind leg in this photo.
Photographed by: Diane Lamoureux. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Cleveland, Tennessee, USA. Date: 3 October, 2019.
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This nice side view of a giant leaf-footed bug shows off the strong profile of this insect. Note: A disease called acanthocephaliasis has no connection to this giant leaf-footed bug or its relatives (all in the scientific genus Acanthocephala). The disease is actually caused by thorny-headed worms. To learn more about the worms or the disease, click here (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).
Photographed and identified by: Reuben Margulies. Excellent ID, Reuben! Location: Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Date: 26 August, 2020.
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Adult giant leaf-footed bug often have a whitish wash on the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), as seen here.
Photographed by: Mary Porter. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Montgomery, Texas, USA. Date: 15 November, 2020.
Mary says, “I found him on the back door. He did not run when I approached him.”
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Leaf-footed bug, newly metamorphosed adult, in the genus Acanthocephala, quite possibly a giant leaf-footed bug, Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This newly metamorphosed adult leaf-footed bug will change from pink (as seen here) to its typical adult coloration of brown during the next few hours.
□ These two beau tiful photos showcase the shape of the flare on each hind leg (the flare is the “leaf” in leaf-footed). A close look at the photo of the underside shows the row of dark spots running up either side of the abdomen — the spots are spiracles (air holes). Insects draw in air through the spiracles rather than breathing through their mouths.
Photographed by: Jessica Yeckley. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Mac Anderson Park, Statesville, North Carolina, USA. Date: 26 August, 2019.
Jessica says, “At first I thought it was a leaf until I looked closer.”
Giant leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This giant leaf-footed bug has a body length of about 3.8 cm (1.5 inches) long. Counting the outspread legs outspread and antenna, it can look downright huge ... or giant!
Photographed by: Naj Kandala. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Houston, Texas, USA. Date: March, 2017.
Naj says, “I am hoping that my daughter will now do her kindergarten bug project on it.”
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This giant leaf-footed bug nymph (immature) has a scallop-edged abdomen, and red antennae and femorae (“thighs”).
Photographed by: Tammy Deremer. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Dunnellon, Florida, USA. Date: 4 May, 2020.
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This giant leaf-footed bug nymph is striking a typical pose with its abdomen slightly curled.
Photographed by: Kristin Roberson. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Date: 19 June, 2020.
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Young giant leaf-footed bug nymphs have readily seen orange tips on the ends of their antennae. As they go through their stages (instars) toward adulthood, the orange fades.
Photographed by: Samantha White Powell. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Kentucky, USA. Date: 24 June, 2020.
Samantha says, “It was fun to see something we have never seen before, the whole family enjoyed it :)”
Giant Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala declivis)
Giant leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This photo gives a nice view of the red on the legs and of the enlarged tibia on this giant leaf-footed bug nymph.
Photographed and identified by: Jade Schuff. Well done, Jade! Location: Clarksville, Tennessee, USA. Date: 27 August, 2022.
Jade says, “I found this bug outside the trash can at work!”
Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephalus spp.)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), in the genus Acanthocephala, likely a giant leaf-footed bug, Acanthocephala declivis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Photographed by: J. Carmack. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Winchester, Tennessee, USA. Date: 10 July, 2016.
J. Carmack says, “First time I have ever seen this type of insect.”
Leaf-Footed Bug (Acanthocephala spp.)
A leaf-footed bug in the genus Acanthocephala, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Photographed by: Bernard Solomon. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Monroe Township, New Jersey, USA. Date: 7 September, 2016.
Bernard says, “There seem to be many of the insects on what appear to be seed pods of the tree, however this is the first year I have noticed the insects on the tree.”
Leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala terminalis)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), likely Acanthocephala terminalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Photographed by: Jon Wilco. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Northern New England, USA. Date: 6 September, 2017.
Crusader bug (Mictis profana)
Crusader bug, Mictis profana, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The large X or cross on the crusader bug gives this species its alternate name of holy cross bug. Crusader bugs are quite common in Australia and Indonesia. This one was photographed in Indonesia.
Photographed and identified to family by: Afier Jinda. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Indonesia. Date: 3 July, 2020.
Leaf-Footed Bug (Mozena obtusa)
Mozena obtusa (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The adult version of Mozena obtusa looks quite different from the nymph in this photo. To see the adult, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed by: Shara Hinchey. Identified by: Ed Bynum, Ph.D, extension entomologist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center. Location: Amarillo, Texas, USA. Date: 8 August, 2014.
Mesquite Bug (Mozena arizoniensis)
Mozena arizoniensis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Mozena arizoniensis has a pronotum (the shield covering the thorax) with two, sharp front corners (the “shoulders”) that sweep forward. It has a long proboscis that it uses to poke into mesquite fruits to get at their seeds, which can therefore disrupt reseeding, but this bug does not seem to do much damage otherwise.
Photographed by: Anonymous. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Benson, Arizona, USA. Date: 10 June, 2020.
Western Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus zonatus)
Western leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus zonatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This western leaf-footed bug is distinguished from a similar but separate species of leaf-footed bug (Leptoglossus clypealis — shown elsewhere on this page) by the two light-colored spots behind the head.
Photographed by: Susan Clarke-Romero. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Bakersfield, California, USA. Date: 4 July, 2017.
Susan says, “He stopped me dead in my tracks! It’s nice to know what he is.” Thanks also to Susan’s dad Jim for originally sending in the photo.
Western Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus zonatus)
Western leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus zonatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The western leaf-footed bug has quite wide tibiae (the “shins”) on its hind legs. Note also that the white banding around the edge of the abdomen is narrower than that in the similar species Leptoglossus clypealis.
Photographed by: Rozmina Kanani-Rawji. Location: Sacramento, California, USA. Date: 5 October, 2021.
Rozmina says, “The bug would not move; seemed to like being on the lawn chair.”
Western Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus zonatus)
Western leaf-footed bug, nymph, Leptoglossus zonatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Nymphs are difficult to tell apart. This one may well be a nymph of a western leaf-footed bug, which is found across the western and southern U.S. and down through Mexico, Central America and much of South America. This photo was taken in California.
Photographed by: Nora Schwab. Location: Fair Oaks California, USA. Date: 25 June, 2023.
Nora photographed this nymph on her cucumber plant “not eating, just walking around on the blossom.”
Western Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus clypealis)
Western leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus clypealis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Note the wide flair on the hind legs of this western leaf-footed bug. It almost looks like a leaf, and that is the origin of the name “leaf-footed”.
Photographed and identified by: Chris McClelland. Excellent ID, Chris! Location: Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Date: 13 October, 2017.
Chris photographed this bug on a bench in the backyard.
Western Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus clypealis)
Western leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus clypealis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The western leaf-footed bug is most common in the southwestern United States and Mexico, but has spread into other parts of the southern U.S. in recent years. It is a pest in certain crop trees, including pistachio and plum trees.
Photographed by: Lisa Bakos. Location: Laguna Beach, California, USA. Date: 17 June, 2021.
Western Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus clypealis)
Western leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus clypealis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The scientific species name of clypealis refers to the small needle-like structure on the front of this western leaf-footed bug’s head, which is just visible in this photo. That structure is actually an extension of a facial plate, called a clypeus.
Photographed by: Pam Meintzer. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Johnstown, Colorado, USA. Date: 12 October, 2016.
Pam says, “Ahhhhhhhhh!!!! It is huge and creepy-looking. I don’t know what it is; hope you know!”
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Western conifer seed bugs are very difficult to discern from other species in this genus. To read a good (but technical) description of the different species in this genus click here (the journal Great Lakes Entomologist).
Photographed and identified to genus by: Tia and Scott Levinson. Location: Putnam Valley, Putnam County, New York, USA. Date: 6 February, 2018.
Tia says, “This guy joined us for dinner.”
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This western conifer seed bug is native to the western United States, but started to march east around the middle of the 20th century, and is now found in the northeastern United States, where this photo was taken.
Photographed and identified by: Karen Dillon. Excellent ID, Karen! Location: Berlin, Vermont, USA. Date: 10 March, 2017.
Karen says, “Climbing on my indoor window in the first week of March! Maybe escaped from some potting soil. I love the little ‘alien face’ on his upper back.”
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Native to the western United States, the western conifer seed bug first appeared in Europe in 1999. It showed up in southern England in 2009 and has since spread north. This photo was taken on the east coast of central England.
Photographed by: Margaret Bowles. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Norfolk, east coast of England, UK. Date: 29 October, 2018.
Margaret says, “I’ve never seen a bug like it before so was curious.” KnowYourInsects.org says, “Curious people are the most interesting people!”
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Although western conifer seed bugs do no damage to homes, they are still considered a pest in the U.S. Midwest, where this photo was taken, because they seek out the warmth of the indoors once the weather begins to chill in the fall. Homeowners frequently report finding one or more of these indoor visitors every week from fall through early spring.
Photographed and identified to order by: Lenore Schmidt. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Roseville, California, USA. Date: 9 October, 2018.
Lenore took this photo in her backyard.
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ When cooler weather sets in, western conifer seed bugs will sometimes seek shelter indoors. They do not bite, but if they feel threatened (e.g., if you try to pick one up), they may emit a pungent odor. That is their defense mechanism.
Photographed by: Cindy Karch. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Macungie, Pennsylvania, USA. Date: 8 August, 2017.
Cindy says, “So cool! ... It’s really beautiful.”
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This top-view photo of a western conifer seed bug clearly shows that its hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) have a leathery half and a membranous half. That half-and-half feature is characteristic of the true bugs in the suborder Heteroptera. Heteroptera formerly held the status of order (and some references still list it as an order), but it is now classified within the order Hemiptera.
Photographed by: Paul Cramer. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Sewickley, Pennsylvania, USA. Date: 11 April, 2020.
Western Conifer Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)
Western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This photo of a western conifer seed bugs shows off the boldly colored and patterned abdomen.
Photographed and identified to order by: Bill Foster. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Nova Scotia, Canada. Date: 24 February, 2021.
Eastern Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus)
Eastern leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The eastern leaf-footed bug is a brown insect with a distinguishing light-colored, straight “belt,” as readily seen in this photo. This bug is found in both the eastern and the southern United States, as well as northern Mexico.
Photographed by: Mary Ann Pape. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: San Angelo, Texas, USA. Date: 10 August, 2019.
Mary Ann found several on a cactus in her yard, and says, “They do fly; one got on my back!”
Eastern Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus)
Eastern leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Eastern leaf-footed bugs are very fond of thistles — this one is on nodding thistle (Carduus nutans) — but will also get into a variety of fruit trees and vegetables (see the photographer’s comment below).
Photographed and identified by: Robert E. Carpenter. Excellent ID, Robert! See Robert’s slow-motion insect videos here. Location: Kerrville, Texas, USA. Date: 27 May, 2018.
Rob says, “Darn bug eats my tomatoes!”
Eastern Leaf-Footed Bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus)
Eastern leaf-footed bug, nymph, Leptoglossus phyllopus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This nymph of an eastern leaf-footed bug has tiny spiky projections all around its abdomen. The eggs look like short brown tubes, and they are laid in long rows, one after another. To learn more about this species, click here (University of Florida “Featured Creatures” website).
Photographed by: Crystal Allbritton. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: West Monroe, Louisiana, USA. Date: 31 July, 2020.
Crystal found lots of these nymphs on her tomatoes.
Leaf-footed Pine Seed Bug (Leptoglossus corculus)
Leaf-footed pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The leaf-footed pine seed bug has three small white dots, as well as an often-faint and blurred white zigzag on its back. The three white dots are visible in this photo, but not the zigzag pattern. Another feature of this species is the series of light-colored lines that run along each side of its abdomen. Click on the photo to zoom in and see the lines, especially along the lower part of the abdomen.
Photographed by: Anonymous. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Dutchess County, New York, USA. Date: 15 September, 2017.
Leaf-footed bug nymphs (Leptoglossus spp.)
Leaf-footed bugs in the genus Leptoglossus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Gardeners are often surprised and dismayed to see a group of these small insects on their vegetable plants. They are nymphs of leaf-footed bugs, which hatch en masse and usually stick around for several days, sometimes longer. Some species can become pests.
Photographed and identified to family by: Christopher Barger. Identified to genus by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Meigs County Tennessee, USA. Date: 25 May, 2023.
Christopher says, “Saw them on this leaf in the woods during a walk.”
Click the photo to enlarge it
Leaf-Footed Bug (Ochrochira albiditarsis)
Ochrochira albiditarsis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Ochrochira albiditarsis has spines and small bumps on its hind legs. It also has orange ends on its antennae and orange or yellow tarsi (feet).
Photographed by: Jumpum Gamlin. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Date: 26 November, 2020.
Leaf-footed bug (Anoplocnemis phasianus)
A leaf-footed bug in the genus Anoplocnemis, possibly Anoplocnemis phasianus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This leaf-footed bug has greatly enlarged femurs on its hind legs, which is a feature of species in the genus Anoplocnemis. This may be the species known by the scientific name of Anoplocnemis phasianus, which when viewed from the top, may be orange, light brown, or very dark brown.
Photographed by: Amit S. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Pune, Maharashtra, India. Date: 8 May, 2021.
Amit spotted it “taking shelter under the leaves during rain.”
Sweet Potato Bug (Physomerus grossipes)
Sweet potato bug, Physomerus grossipes, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The sweet potato bug is native to southeast Asia, but it arrived in Hawaii, where this photo was taken, by 1997. They may have gotten to Hawaii on imported plants, perhaps as eggs.
□ The Florida leaf-footed bug (Acanthocephala femorata) also has enlarged femora (“thighs”) on the hind legs, but they are even more robust in the sweet potato bug.
Photographed and identified to family by: Bill Schafer. Nicely done, Bill! Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. Date: 23 January, 2022.
Sweet Potato Bug (Physomerus grossipes)
Sweet potato bug, Physomerus grossipes, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ A few characteristics of the sweet potato bug include the jagged orange trim around the abdomen, the thin orange line down the middle of the pronotum (the plate over the thorax), and the enlarged femur of each hind leg. And they do indeed like sweet potato plants — see the photographer’s comment below.
Photographed and identified by: Wes Lum. Excellent ID, Wes! Location: Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Date: 25 March, 2019.
Wes found this one on a rose bush in his yard ... near the sweet potatoes. He says, “I was worried they were going to eat my roses. Looks like they were here for something else. LOL”
Sweet Potato Bug (Physomerus grossipes)
Sweet potato bug, Physomerus grossipes, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The sweet potato bug is sometimes called a large spine-footed bug or a stout-legged bug, both referring to its hind legs. Besides the robust femur of each hind leg, the tibia of each hind leg also sports a large spine, as seen here.
Photographed by: Amit S. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Pune, Maharashtra, India. Date: 22 November, 2020.
Insect facts
□ Most insects provide no parental care, but the sweet potato bug is one of the exceptions. The female sweet potato bug stands guard over her offspring from egg through nymph stages.
Helmeted Squash Bug (Euthochtha galeator)
Euthochtha galeator (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Euthochtha galeator has white tibiae/shins, as seen above. Although not visible in this photo, another characteristic of the males of this species is a tiny flap on either side of the body — on the thorax just in front of the abdomen (an area called the metepimeron). For more information about this bug, which can be a pest on roses, click here (University of Florida “Featured Creatures” website).
Photographed by: Sheldon L. Boyd. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: The Villages, Florida, USA. Date: 8 June, 2019.
Helmeted Squash Bug nymph (Euthochtha galeator)
Euthochtha galeator (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This nymph of Euthochtha galeator is sporting some very impressive spines! The photographer found this one in Maine, but it is possible this insect came from Pennsylvania. See his comment below.
Photographed by: Daniel Sholes. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Maine, USA. Date: 6 August, 2018.
Daniel says, “I’m a log home builder in Maine. Our kits are shipped from Pennsylvania. I’ve never seen anything like it.” KnowYourInsects.org had never seen this species either! Great find, Daniel!
Helmeted Squash Bug nymph (Euthochtha galeator)
Euthochtha galeator (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The nymphs of spiny assassin bugs and some leaf-footed bugs, including Euthochtha galeator, look quite similar. See the photographer’s comment below about the many nymphs in her garden.
Photographed by: Gail E. Rowley. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. near Shadehill Dam, South Dakota, USA. Date: 13 July, 2022.
Gail says, “This year we have many more leaf-footeds in the garden, sucking/damaging plant stems and the fruits like tomatoes, cukes, etc. Same with assassins, squash bugs, other ‘shield’ bugs. Drought and extreme heat seem to help them be prolific!”
Leaf-Footed bug (Acanthocoris spp.)
A leaf-footed bug in the genus Acanthocoris, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This leaf-footed bug (possibly in the genus Acanthocoris) has a very rough appearance, with a sharp forward sweep on both sides of its pronotum (the shield covering its thorax). See the photographer’s comment below about the odor this insect emits from glands on its thorax.
Photographed and identified to family by: John Kamau. Identified to tentative genus by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Githurai 45 near Nairobi, Kenya, Africa. Date: 24 April, 2020.
John found it in his kitchen and reports, “I used a tissue paper to hold it, but oh what an awful defensive smell!”
Leaf-Footed bug (Homoeocerus [Anacanthocoris] striicornis)
Homoeocerus striicornis (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
Homoeocerus striicornis looks quite different when viewed from the side vs. the top. Both views show the white spot toward the tip of each antenna, and the body’s pretty lime-green coloration. The side view showcases the black-bordered white stripe on each side of the thorax, while the top view shows off the brown hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back).
□ Note: This species is sometimes listed as Anacanthocoris striicornis.
Photographed by: Éireann. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Singapore. Date: 11 July, 2019.
Prickly Pear Bug (Chelinidea tabulata)
Prickly pear bug, nymph (immature), Chelinidea tabulata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This is a nymph of a prickly pear bug, which is very closely related to the cactus bug (shown elsewhere on this page). The adult is shown in the next photo.
Photographed and identified to genus by: Manzeal Khanal. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: San Antonio, Texas, USA. Date: 24 August, 2019.
Prickly Pear Bug (Chelinidea tabulata)
Prickly pear bug, Chelinidea tabulata, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This prickly pear bug shows off the two-part wings in this order of insects, because the front half of the wings has the pretty, white-lined, brown pattern, while the back half is all one color: greenish-brown. A close look at the greenish-brown portion reveals the wing veins.
Photographed and identified by: Manzeal Khanal. Excellent ID, Manzeal! Location: Uvalde, Texas, USA. Date: 11 August, 2018.
Cactus bug (Chelinidea vittiger)
Cactus bug, nymph (immature), Chelinidea vittiger, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This cactus bugs nymph is actually on a cactus, and some of the damage it causes (the white spots) is evident. This species is sometimes called a prickly pear cactus bug, but usually that name is reserved for a closely related species, Chelinidea tabulata, which is pictured elsewhere on this page.
Photographed by: H. Barton/hbd images. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Arizona, USA. Date: 12 April, 2017.
H. Barton says, “I found dozens of these 1/8-–1/4-inch insects on my cactus in Arizona.” That is about 3-6 mm.
Cactus bug (Chelinidea vittiger)
Cactus bug, nymph (immature), Chelinidea vittiger, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The nymph of the cactus bug can look different from one stage of development to the next. One characteristic feature of many stages is the stripe that runs down its head. The adult also has the same stripe, but it has chocolate-colored wings with light-colored veins.
Photographed by: Jacob Hourt. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Wyoming, USA. Date: 20 August, 2018.
Cactus bug (Chelinidea vittiger)
Cactus bug, nymphs (immature), Chelinidea vittiger, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The photographer found these young nymphs of cactus bugs, actually on prickly pear (nopal) cacti. When young, the nymphs may have a red or a black head and pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), and green abdomen (as shown here).
Photographed by: Steven Arnold. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Waco, Texas, USA. Date: 15 August, 2019.
Steven says, “I took this photo at a house I’m painting. I thought they were baby spiders, but when I zoomed in, I noticed they had six legs and two large, thick antennae.”
Cactus bug (Chelinidea vittiger)
Cactus bug, nymph (immature), Chelinidea vittiger, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ As cactus bug nymphs get older, the abdomen typically turns dark reddish-brown, as seen here. This is one of many the photographer found. See his description below.
Photographed and identified by: Joshua Hay. Nicely done, Joshua! Location: Manor (northeast of Austin), Texas, USA. Date: 25 September, 2022.
Joshua says, “Found over 60 of them on my nopals (prickly pear cacti) while watering this morning. They were so dense on some leaves that I thought it was the shadow of the sunrise until the water hit them and they scattered.”
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Box Bug (Gonocerus acuteangulus)
Box bug, Gonocerus acuteangulus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The adult box bug has a slightly mottled appearance rather, either mainly reddish-brown or brown. The oval tips on its antennae also help to identify this species.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Bleheut. Nice ID, Eric! Location: Lille, France. Date: 10 June, 2023.
Squash Bug (Gonocerus juniperi)
Gonocerus juniperi (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This is a nymph of Gonocerus juniperi. The adult is reddish-brown with small black speckles and either green or yellow trim around the abdomen. To see an adult with yellow trim, click here (National Inventory of Natural Heritage).
Photographed by: Werner Kaufmann. Identified by: a German entomologist who wished to remain anonymous. Location: Vienna, Austria. Date: 1 August, 2015.
Squash Bug (Gonocerus juniperi)
A squash bug, nymph (immature), possibly Gonocerus insidiator (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ The nymph of Gonocerus insidiator will become an adult that is light brown with pinkish brown antennae and green legs. To see the adult, click here (Project Noah). Photographed by: Sarah Silvia. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Morocco. Date: 14 October, 2019.
Sarah says, “Found this on the mirror of the car in Morocco.”
Dock Bug (Coreus marginatus)
Dock bug, Coreus marginatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Compare this to the other photos of the dock bug on this page. This one is light in color and has whitish antennae (rather than red ones). The lovely mottling on its back is showcased in this photo. The photographer estimated that it was about 20 mm (about 3/4 inch) in body length.
Photographed by: Martin Towers. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Fakenham, Norfolk, England, UK. Date: 10 April, 2020.
Martin found it in his garden.
Dock Bug (Coreus marginatus)
Dock bug, Coreus marginatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Note the hourglass figure on this dock bug, and its black-tipped antennae. A person with an eagle eye might see the two tiny, pointed projections located between the antennae. The projections are sensory structures called labial palps.
Photographed by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 28 March, 2019.
Dock Bug (Coreus marginatus)
Dock bug, Coreus marginatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This is an adult dock bug. They have this common name because they are often found on plants in the genus Rumex, which are known as docks and sorrels.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Bleheut. Nice ID, Eric! Location: Lille, France. Date: 5 June, 2023.
Dock bug (Coreus marginatus)
Dock bug, nymph, Coreus marginatus, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ Click on this photo of a dock bug nymph to zoom in and see the tiny dots and squiggles on its body, the four-segmented antennae, the arabesque-like shape of its abdomen, and even the little “hairs” called setae on the femurs.
Photographed by: Yanni Petropoulos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Flushing, Cornwall, southwest England. Date: 27 August, 2023.
Yanni says, “I have taken quite a few shots of this one, but I am sending the best one.” KnowYourInsects.org says, “It is a beautiful photo!”
Coreid Bug (Enoplops disciger)
Enoplops disciger (no specific common name), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This photo shows an interesting widening of its second-to-last antennal segment. Entomologist Pierre Moulet believes this to be Enoplops disciger, possibly a new sighting for Mongolia (see Dr. Moulet’s comment below).
Photographed by: Ulzii Bayar. Identified by: Entomologist Pierre Moulet of Museum Requien in Avignon, France. Thank you, Dr. Moulet! Location: Mongolia. Date: 7 October, 2019.
Dr. Moulet says that Enoplops disciger is well-known from “eastern Europe and central Asia, but up to now, not recorded from Mongolia.”
Insect facts
Hemelytra is the scientific term for the forewings of true bugs (the order Hemiptera). It is a Greek word meaning half-sheath, and refers to half-stiff, half-membranous construction of the forewings. See the photo of Enoplops disciger for a good for a good view of the half-and-half structure.
Cactus Leaf-Footed Bug (Narnia spp.)
Cactus leaf-footed bugs, mating pair, in the genus Narnia, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ These cactus leaf-footed bugs are mating while perched on the reddish-purple fruit of a prickly pear cactus.
Photographed and identified to family by: Manzeal Khanal. Identified to genus by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: San Antonio, Texas, USA. Date: 23 August, 2019.
Leaf-Footed Bug (Catorhintha spp.)
A leaf-footed bug in the genus Catorhintha, possibly Catorhintha selector, subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This leaf-footed bug could be either Catorhintha selector or Catorhintha divergens. One way to tell them apart is that Catorhintha divergens has obvious black spots on the tips of its antennae, whereas Catorhintha selector lacks them. This appears to be Catorhintha selector.
Photographed by: Éireann. Identified to likely genus by: entomologist Igor Dimitri Forero Fuentes, Ph.D., Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia. Thank you, Dr. Fuentes! Identified to tentative species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Colombia. Date: 9 July, 2019.
Leaf-footed bug (Coreidae)
A leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), subfamily Coreinae, family Coreidae.
□ This little nymph of a leaf-footed bug was only about 5 mm (0.2 inches) in body length. Its antennae are covered in short, dark-brown setae (insect “hairs”).
Photographed by: Mary Lauderdale. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: northwest Arkansas, USA. Date: 31 July, 2023.
Mary says, “I thought it was so cute. It’s like he’s wearing little tap shoes.”
Denticulate Leatherbug (Coriomeris denticulatus)
Denticulate leatherbug, Coriomeris denticulatus, subfamily Pseudophloeinae, family Coreidae.
□ One of the features of this denticulate leatherbug is the many short bristles on its body, even the antennae. It is often seen munching on clovers in meadows.
Photographed and identified to family by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Oxford, UK. Date: 9 October, 2022.
Jean-Louis found this bug on a garden wall.
Leaf-footed bug (Coreidae)
An unidentified leaf-footed bug (underside), family Coreidae.
□ The photographer provided a great description of the underside of this leaf-footed bug — see the comment below.
Photographed by: Deb Paron. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Sumpter Township, Michigan, USA. Date: 28 September, 2015.
Deb says, “I was fascinated by its abdomen — it looks exactly like a hand grenade!”
Leaf-footed bug (Coreidae)
An unidentified leaf-footed bug, nymph (immature), family Coreidae.
□ The two tiny wings extending back from either side of the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) are nonfunctional wing buds. These are typical of immature leaf-footed bugs. Only when the nymph becomes an adult will it gain full-length and fully operational wings.
Photographed by: Gegu Soe. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Yangon, Myanmar. Date: 23 April, 2020.

Rhopalidae (the scentless plant bugs)

Hyaline grass bug (Liorhyssus hyalinus)
Hyaline grass bug, Liorhyssus hyalinus, subfamily Rhopalinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ As seen in the left and center photos, the hyaline grass bug has wings that extend a good distance beyond the end of the abdomen. This is a feature that helps to identify this bug, but it is easily missed from the dorsal view (at right) because the wings are so transparent.
□ This individual’s pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) and head are mostly dark brown, but other individuals may be purple or red instead. All have a mainly black abdomen with a row of small white squares down the center, as seen in the right photo.
Photographed by: Thomas Langhans. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. See Thomas’s original full-size images here, here and here. Location: city of Brisbane, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 23 August, 2023.
Thomas says it was about 8 mm (0.3 inches) in body length. This is one of several different species of insects he has spotted on his car — it pays to be observant 😊.
Hyaline grass bug (Liorhyssus hyalinus)
Hyaline grass bug, Liorhyssus hyalinus, subfamily Rhopalinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ The hyaline grass bug can be found on a wide variety of plants, including flowering plants, such as asters, mallows and hemp. It is primarily a tropical and subtropical species, but has been showing up in more temperate areas in this century.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Nice ID, Eric! Location: Bang Krang, Thailand. Date: 16 August, 2023.
Scentless plant bug (Rhopalus subrufus)
Rhopalus subrufus (no specific common name), subfamily Rhopalinae, family Rhopalidae.
Rhopalus subrufus is a member of the family known collectively as scentless plant bugs. It has a rust-red pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) with rust-red and black-speckled areas, and alternating black and white markings on the edge of its abdomen. Although it is not evident unless the specimen is in hand, this species has a number of short setae (insect “hairs”) covering its body, including its legs.
Photographed and identified to family by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Nice job on the ID, Jean-Louis! Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 15 July, 2019.
Scentless Plant Bug nymphs (Niesthrea louisianica)
Niesthrea louisianica (no specific common name), nymphs (immatures), subfamily Rhopalinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ With their white checkers and orange heads, these Niesthrea louisianica nymphs are quite attractive. The adults are also handsome. To see the adult, click here (BugGuide).
□ Both the nymphs and the adults eat the seeds of plants in the mallow family, and that includes Rose of Sharon, which is where these bugs were photographed.
Photographed by: Kaye Stone. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Bolivar, Polk County, Missouri, USA. Date: 9 October, 2019.
Scentless seed bug (Arhyssus scutatus)
Scentless seed bug, possibly Arhyssus scutatus (no specific common name), subfamily Rhopalinae, family Rhopalidae.
Photographed by: Monica Isaza. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Utah, USA. Date: 29 June, 2016.
Monica says, “I am not sure if they fly or just jump, (but) when I am in the garage or close to where they are, I always get a few on myself.”
Red-shouldered bug (Jadera haematoloma)
Red-shouldered bug, nymph (immature), Jadera haematoloma, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ The nymphs of red and black milkweed bugs look similar to this red-shouldered bug, but have rows of black dots down the abdomen. When the nymph of the red-shouldered bug becomes an adult, black wings will cover the abdomen. To see the adult, click here (BugGuide).

Photographed by: Shelley. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Los Angeles, California. Date: 8 November, 2016.
Shelley says, “And they are in massive numbers — hundreds of them. All different stages!”
Box elder bug (Boisea trivittata)
Box elder bug, Boisea trivittata, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ The box elder bug is sometimes known by the common name of a maple bug, and in those areas where they become common at election time, they are also known as democrat bugs, populist bugs or politician bugs. The underside (right) is also red and black, but in a different pattern.
Photographed by: Ron Wilder. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Liverpool, New York, USA. Date: 8 November, 2016.
Ron says, “Over 100 of them were on the siding of my house and the garage door, like they were basking in the bright, warm sun of that day.”
Box elder bug (Boisea trivittata)
Box elder bug, Boisea trivittata, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ Check out the handsome red-and-black pattern on this box elder bug. It is not tasty to predators, and the red color helps to let predators know that they should find a meal elsewhere. A side note: When the weather turns cold, groups of box elder bugs will congregate someplace warm, occasionally in houses.
Photographed by: Sarah Zolynsky. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Canton, Michigan, USA. Date: 6 October, 2016.
Box elder bug (Boisea trivittata)
Box elder bug, nymph (immature), Boisea trivittata, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ Immature box elder bugs, like this nymph, are often found in large groups. Nymphs go through five stages, or instars, becoming darker and darker red with each passing instar. The black wing buds (too undeveloped for flight) become longer at each stage. This nymph is probably a fifth instar, and with the next molt, it will become an adult (as shown in the previous photo).
Photographed by: Craig Bierman. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: western New Jersey, USA. Date: 14 July, 2018.
Box Elder Bugs nymphs (Boisea trivittata)
Box elder bugs, nymphs (immatures), Boisea trivittata, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ The original photo shows dozens and dozens of box elder bug nymphs. This is a close-up of a portion of that photo to show a few of them. They closely resemble large milkweed bug nymphs.
Photographed by and identified as nymphs by: Craig Olson. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. Date: 18 September, 2016.
Craig says, “Never seen them before. Wondering if it is a nymph stage of something.” KnowYourInsects replies, “Craig are correct! They are nymphs!”
Insect facts
□ Although the box elder bug is in the family of insects known as scentless plant bugs, it actually releases a quite smelly odor that also tastes bad and deters predators.
Western Box Elder Bug (Boisea rubrolineata)
Western box elder bug, nymphs (immatures), Boisea rubrolineata, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
□ This is a nymph of a western box elder bug. Its species name of rubrolineata means red lines and refers to the prominent markings on the adult. To see the adult, click here (BugGuide).
□ It is a species of the western United States.
Photographed by: Bill Caddell. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: near Portland, Oregon, USA. Date: 6 July, 2023.
Bill says this is one of many nymphs that have decided to visit his house. On this particular day, he added, “It is 90 degrees outside and they are climbing on the garage door in full sun and walking around in profusion.”
Western Box Elder Bug (Boisea rubrolineata)
Western box elder bug, nymphs (immatures), Boisea rubrolineata, subfamily Serinethinae, family Rhopalidae.
Western box elder bugs are especially fond of leaves, seeds and flowers of box elder (Acer negundo), trees, as well as other maple trees (box elder is in the maple genus) and western soapberry. In addition, it will eat fruit on fruit trees. They usually are not major pests.
□ The nymph goes through five stages (with slightly different appearances) before becoming an adult.
Photographed by: Lisa M. Bakos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Diablo, California, USA. Date: 29 April, 2022.
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Alydidae (the broad-headed bugs)

Broad-headed bug (Micrelytrinae)
A broad-headed bug, in the subfamily Micrelytrinae, family Alydidae.
□ The width of the head in some broad-headed bugs is not very broad, as seen here.
Photographed by: Marv Goldberg. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Tamarac, Florida, USA. Date: 28 August, 2020.
Broad-headed bug nymph (Alydidae)
A broad-headed bug, nymph (immature) in the family Alydidae.
□ This may look like an ant, but this is a nymph of a broad-headed bug. It could be a nymph of several species, including the broad-headed bug called a Texas bow-legged bug (Hyalymenus tarsatus). To see the Texas bow-legged bug, click here (BugGuide). Texas bow-legged bugs feed on many plants, poking their long mouthparts into seeds and stems.
Photographed by: Andrea Newman. Submitted via: Permaculture Gardens. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Texas, USA. Date: August, 2022.
Andrea found this bug on elderberry.
Insect facts
□ Would you like a list of all the true bug (Hemiptera) families — in one handy place? We made one for you! To see it, click here.

Pentatomidae (the stink bugs)

White Stink Bug nymph (Degonetus serratus)
Degonetus serratus (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This stunning Degonetus serratus nymph looks much more subdued as an adult — as an adult, it is ochre-colored. It feeds on teak (Tectona grandis), a tropical tree that produces much-appreciated hardwood, and the photographer found this nymph on a teak tree.
Photographed and identified to order by: Surabhika Panda. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Navsari, Gujarat, India. Date: 10 December, 2018.
Tomato Stink Bug nymphs (Arvelius albopunctatus)
Tomato stink bug, nymphs (immatures), Arvelius albopunctatus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ A row of tomato stink bug nymphs line this stem of a pepper plant. The adults are green with black specks and yellow spots. To see the adults, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed by: Yan L. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Date: 12 September, 2020.
Green Stink Bug (Chinavia hilaris)
Green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The green stink bug is polyphagous: poly means many, and phagous means eater. True to this descriptor, this species has a widely varied diet.
Photographed by: Kyle Lengerich. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Indiana, USA. Date: 2019.
Green Stink Bug (Chinavia hilaris)
Green stink bug, nymph (immature), Chinavia hilaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Thank you to entomologist John E. McPherson, professor emeritus of Southern Illinois University, for the update on the scientific name.
Photographed by: Christine Howells. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Beckley, West Virginia. Date: 22 August, 2017.
Green Stink Bug (Chinavia hilaris)
Green stink bug, nymph (immature), Chinavia hilaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ With stink bugs (and many other insects), it is important to not only look at the common names, but also the scientific names. For instance, this page includes both the green stink bug (Chinavia hilaris), and the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula), which are actually member of different genera (genera is the plural of genus).
Photographed by: Dave Delman, M.D. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Jericho, New York, USA. Date: 29 October, 2017.
Green Stink Bug (Chinavia hilaris)
Green stink bug, nymph (immature), Chinavia hilaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The orange “shoulders” are one of the distinguishing features of this green stink bug nymph. The thin black lines on the abdomen are another.
Photographed by: Patti Donnellan. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Lorain County, northeastern Ohio, USA. Date: 8 September, 2016.
Patti says, “I didn’t know the green stinkers lived this far north. I have seen them when I lived in Alabama, but not up here.”
Green Stink Bug (Chinavia hilaris)
Green stink bug, nymph (immature), Chinavia hilaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This nymph (immature) will grow into an adult that is bright green, which is where it gets its descriptive if unimaginative common name of green stink bug.
Photographed by: Patti Donnellan. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Lorain County, northeastern Ohio, USA. Date: 8 September, 2016.
Patti found it along a crushed limestone trail next to a wetland.
Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula)
Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The bottom view of this southern green stink bug shows the scent glands, which are the two gray shapes at the center of pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) and right behind the front legs. These glands produce a foul-smelling substance: they put the “stink” in stink bugs!
□The head-on view shows the two big compound eyes, plus two much smaller eyes (called ocelli) that look like orange-and-black droplets. The compound eyes help insects to see full images, while the ocelli are light-sensing receptors that pick up motion only — great for spotting and eluding approaching predators.
Photographed by: Thomas Langhans. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. See Thomas’s full-size images here, here, and here. Location: city of San Bruno, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 27 April, 2018.
Thomas says, “Here is another character that liked our Nissan Leaf (I think they should have named it something else)! About 15 mm (0.6 inches) long. Spent a lot of time rubbing the antennae and mouthpart with the front legs.”
Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula)
Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Note the two tiny black dots on either edge of the scutellum (the triangular-shaped shield in the middle of the back). These dots help distinguish this southern green stink bug from the green stink bug (Chinavia hilaris). Notice also the long and thin mouthparts tucked under the body (left) and extended (right). The mouthparts act as a sharp-tipped straw: They stab into a plant to reach the plant juices.
Photographed by: Thomas Langhans. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. See Thomas’s full-size images here and here. Location: city of San Bruno, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 27 April, 2018.
Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula)
Southern green stink bug, fourth instar nymph (immature), Nezara viridula, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Insects go through stages as they grow, and the stages are called instars. This appears to be a fourth instar nymph of the southern green stink bug, so two more molts and it becomes an adult.
Photographed and identified by: Damian Duron. Well done on the ID, Damian! Location: Watsonville, California, USA. Date: 19 October, 2017.
Damian says, “I am afraid these guys are not too good for my garden. (They) infested my green beans this year.” KnowYourInsects.org replies, “We are gardeners, too, so we share your pain!”
Southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula)
Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ These are third-instar nymphs of southern green stink bugs. White spots run along the border of the abdomen with four large yellowish markings in the center. The thorax also has a pair of elongated orange markings on each side.
Photographed by: Maureen Winchester. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Christchurch, New Zealand. Date: 30 January, 2024.
Maureen spotted them on a tomato plant.
Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula)
Southern green stink bug, also known as a southern green shield bug, third instar nymph (immature), Nezara viridula, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is called a southern green stink bug in the United States and a southern green shield bug in the United Kingdom. It is native to Africa, but in the past couple of decades, it has ventured to the UK, where this one was photographed. This is a third-instar nymph.
Photographed and identified by: Paula French. Well done on the ID, Paula! Location: Northwest London, UK. Date: August 2018.
Paula says, “There was a plant covered in these in my garden — I just managed to get this one when it stopped moving.”
Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula)
Southern green stink bug, nymph, Nezara viridula, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The southern green stink bug has spread considerably from its native location in eastern central Africa and is now found in many warm areas of Africa, Europe, North America, South America and Asia. This one was photographed in Spain.
□ Nymphs not only vary as they go through their molts, but they can also vary from individual to individual. Some have far fewer white markings than this one.
Photographed by: Diane Walsh. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Spain. Date: 21 May, 2023.
 Stink Bug (Agonoscelis nubilis)
Agonoscelis nubilis (no specific common name), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomatidae.
□ This Agonoscelis nubilis blends in very well with the background, but if you look closely, you can see how beautiful it actually is. In some individuals, the orange wash on its hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) is much more pronounced than seen on this one. Either way, it is a lovely insect.
Photographed by: Bapi Debnath. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Mohanpur, Tripura, India. Date: 22 February, 2017.
Harlequin Bug (Murgantia histrionica)
Harlequin bug, mating pair, Murgantia histrionica, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Even when photographed from this angle, this mating pair of harlequin bugs can be identified by the characteristic bicolored orange-and-white spots on their underside, and the pattern of white markings around the edge of the abdomen.
Photographed by: Kimberly Tilton-Riley. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Mission Trails, San Diego, California, USA. Date: 16 April, 2018.
Kimberly says, “Thank you for identifying these colorful creatures!” KnowYourInsects.org says, “You’re welcome!”
Harlequin Bug (Murgantia histrionica)
Harlequin bug, mating pair, Murgantia histrionica, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Harlequin bugs can be pests of a variety of garden vegetables and fruits. Usually only seen farther south in the United States, they have been moving northward as climate change has been making winters milder. These were photographed in Connecticut as the photographer was helping at a community garden (so wonderful!). See her comment below.
Photographed by: Toni Simonetti. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Westport, Connecticut, USA. Date: 2 October, 2021.
Toni says, “I was weeding an area with horseradish when they swarmed me.”
Stink bug (Axiagastus dubius)
Axiagastus dubius (no specific common name), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Axiagastus dubius is a species of stink bug with a mottled black and brown (sometimes orangish) back with an white, angled heart shape toward the rear.
Photographed by: Ram Bhaskar. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Holland Village, Singapore. Date: 2 May, 2021.
Twice-Stabbed Stink Bugs (Cosmopepla lintneriana)
Twice-stabbed stink bugs, Cosmopepla lintneriana, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The two red blotches on its back give the twice-stabbed stink bug its colorful name. It is also sometimes known as a wee harlequin bug or a two-spotted stink bug. The female in this mating pair lays her eggs on the underside of various plant leaves, and then guards them as they develop into nymphs. In large number, twice-stabbed stink bugs damage flowers.
Photographed by: James Engebretson. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Forest County, Wisconsin, USA. Date: 4 June, 2020.
James spotted this pair on a lilac.
Man-faced stink bug (Catacanthus incarnatus)
Man-faced stink bug, also known as man-faced shield bug, Catacanthus incarnatus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is the red version, or morph, of the man-faced stink bug. Other color morphs are orange, yellow and yellowish-white. They all have the same black markings.
□ The white underside provides a striking contrast to the red topside.
Photographed and identified by: K J Westman. Nicely done, K J! Location: Pamunugama, Sri Lanka. Date: 15 June, 2016.
This is one of K J’s favorite insects, and adds, “The man-faced stink bug is known here in Sri Lanka as the jungle dragon.”
Man-faced stink bug (Catacanthus incarnatus)
Man-faced stink bug, also known as man-faced shield bug, Catacanthus incarnatus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ When viewed upside down, the “face” of a man-faced stink bug appears: The triangular scutellum takes the shape of a nose, and the two black spots on its hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) look like eyes. Do you see it?
Photographed by: Ahalya Katrak. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Mumbai, India. Date: 30 March, 2021.
Ahalya spotted this stink bug on a 36-foot-long (almost 11 meters) balcony and says, “It was walking like a marathoner.... I saw this little fellow do three full rounds and still going on.”
Stink Bug (Chalcocoris rutilans)
Chalcocoris rutilans (no specific common name), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This brilliant, green, metallic and striking yellow to orange "Y" give Chalcocoris rutilans a jewel-like appearance. This insect does not have a common name of its own, but it surely needs one!
Photographed by: Sarah Park. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Bangui, Central African Republic. Date: 13 December, 2022.
Sarah says, “Looks almost like someone hand-painted it!”
Stink Bug nymph (Erthesina acuminata)
Stink bug, sometimes called a yellow-spotted stink bug or eresthina stink bug, nymph (immature), Erthesina acuminata, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This nymph of the yellow-spotted stink bug is light gray with two large spots on its abdomen: one that is black, and a second gray spot surrounded by a very thin black outline and containing two small black dots. The adult is a much darker coloration with yellow spots. To see the adult, click here (North Dakota State University).
Photographed by: Mr. Mahesh DW. Identified to family by: Ajay Jadhao. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Nanded, Maharashtra, India. Date: 11 July, 2018.
Stink Bug nymph (Erthesina acuminata)
Yellow-spotted stink bug, nymph (immature), Erthesina acuminata, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This yellow-spotted stink bug is an early instar (young nymph). It is photographed here on guava. The closely related species Erthesina fullo is nearly identical, but it makes it home farther east in the oriental region. For more about Erthesina fullo, click here (the journal Heteroptera Poloniae).
Photographed and identified by: Amit Gojiya, Girish Patidar and Ranjit Thakor. Well done on the team effort, Amit, Girish and Ranjit! Location: Agriculture Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Western India. Date: 9 October, 2018.
Stink Bug nymph (Erthesina acuminata)
Stink bug, sometimes called a yellow-spotted stink bug or eresthina stink bug, nymph (immature), Erthesina acuminata, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This photo shows three nymphs (immatures) of a yellow-spotted stink bug: two are gray with a large black spot on the abdomen; and one in the lower right corner. The latter is much smaller and has striping on its “shoulder” — it recently emerged from one of the eggs shown. To see the various stages of this stink bug, click here (iNaturalist.org).
Photographed by: Vijay Mudaliar. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Pune, Maharashtra, India. Date: 13 November, 2020.
Stink Bug (Chlorochroa ligata)
Conchuela bug, Chlorochroa ligata, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Stink bugs in this genus (Chlorochroa) look much alike, but their identity can sometimes be at least narrowed down by their geographic location. This one was photographed in central California near Sacramento, which is home to several species, and this looks like a conchuela bug.
Photographed by: Michelle Gondor. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Roseville, California, USA. Date: 3 August, 2022.
Michelle says, “This little cutie landed on me and flew away a little while later.”
Say's stink bug (Chlorochroa sayi)
Say's stink bug, Chlorochroa sayi, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Say’s stink bug looks nearly identical to another species — Uhler’s stink bug (Chlorochroa uhleri). Both can be brown, dark green, light green or beige; have the same light-colored border and spot pattern; and live in Colorado, where this photo was taken. The membranous half of the forewings, however, are a bit different: They are clear in Uhler’s, but have a slight purplish tinge in Say’s, as shown in the photo.
□ The right photo shows an outline of one of the two forewings. The dotted line indicates where the wing changes from the more hardened green section to a slightly purplish membranous section.
Photographed and identified to family by: Annette Powell and her 9-year old daughter Taylah. Way to go, Annette and Taylah! Location: Colorado. Date: 12 April, 2024.
Annette says Taylah keeps a photo album of insects, and adds “We like to know what they are if we can’t easily identify them. This was a pretty one.” KnowYourInsects.org says, “Now that’s a fun family!”
Stink Bug nymph (Chlorochroa spp.)
Stink bug, nymph (immature), in the genus Chlorochroa, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Check out the photographer’s comments below to get a glimpse of the adventure involved in finding this stink bug!
Photographed by: Deborah Malitz. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Idaho, USA. Date: 16 August, 2017.
Deborah says, “(This photo) was taken at the top of a huge cinder cone we had climbed and the shiny rocks all around are cinder from volcanic explosions…. It was like being at the top of a mountain of black diamonds.”
Variegated caper bug (Stenozygum coloratum)
Variegated caper bug, Stenozygum coloratum, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Variegated caper bugs primarily eat caper bushes (in the genus Capparis). This is a fifth instar nymph, so it is in the last stage before becoming an adult. To see the lovely adult, click here (iNaturalist.org). To see all five nymphal stages and the adult, click here and see Figure 3 (European Journal of Entomology).
Photographed by: Sarah Park. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Israel. Date: 2019.
Sarah says, “It certainly is FANCY!”
Dusky Stink Bug (Euschistus tristigmus)
Dusky stink bug, nymphs, Euschistus tristigmus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Newborn stink bugs are difficult to positively identify to species, but these appear to be dusky stink bugs. The species name of tristigmus means three marks and refers to a row of black spots on the belly of the adult: two of the spots are quite round and small like little drops of paint, and the rear one is drawn out as if the drop of paint is running. The adults are quite small — about the width of a pinky fingernail — and may be either brown or beige. To see the adult, click here (iNaturalist.org).
Photographed by: Brenda Kane. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Keremeos Creek Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Date: 27 June, 2023.
Brenda says she took this photo of the hatchlings on a geranium in her garden.
Mottled Shield Bug (Rhaphigaster nebulosa)
Mottled shield bug, nymph, Rhaphigaster nebulosa, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Click this photo of a nymph of a mottled shield bug to zoom in and see its spots and wormy markings. The adult also has a complex pattern of mottling on its wings. To see the adult, click here (BritishBugs.org).
Photographed by: Yanni Petropoulos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: mainland of southwest Greece. Date: 23 June, 2022.
Cabbage Bug (Eurydema oleracea)
Cabbage bug, also known as a rape bug, crucifer shield bug, and brassica bug, Eurydema oleracea, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The cabbage bug eats rape (also known as rapeseed) and other plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae), as well as cruciferous vegetables, so gardeners and farmers have given it many common names, including rape bug, crucifer shield bug and brassica bug. The row of three white spots across the back is a distinctive feature of this species.
Photographed and identified by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Well done on the ID, Jean-Louis! Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 15 July, 2019.
Cauliflower Bug (Eurydema ventralis)
Cauliflower bugs, mating pair, Eurydema ventralis, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidaddpae.
□ Several species in this genus are red with black markings. The pattern on this pair suggest they are cauliflower bugs. These insects will not only eat cauliflower, but other cruciferous vegetables.
Photographed by: Yanni Petropoulos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: mainland of southwest Greece. Date: 23 June, 2020.
Add your photo here!
Stink Bug (Banasa calva)
Banasa stink bug, Banasa calva, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The half-and-half coloration of this species of banasa stink bug, Banasa calva, is typical for the species, but in some individuals, the hues are much more green. On the lighter half, the tiny pits that decorate this bug are easy to see.
Photographed by: Denise Rulason. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Mayville, Michigan, USA. Date: 1 June, 2018.
Banasa Stink Bug (Banasa formosus)
Banasa stink bug, Banasa formosus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The generic name of banasa stink bug covers all of the species within the genus Banasa. That includes Banasa formosus. A feature of Banasa formosus is its rich green color; the black “window frame” on its back; and the yellow or white tip on the end of its scutellum.
Photographed by: Bob McDevitt. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Date: 1 July, 2020.
Bob spotted this stink bug lounging on a lawn chair in the yard.
Bishop's Mitre Shield Bug (Aelia acuminata)
Bishop’s mitre shield bug, Aelia acuminata, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The pointed head of this bishop’s mitre shield bug is quite reminiscent of the ceremonial pointed hats (or mitres) worn by many bishops of the Christian faith.
Photographed by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 16 September, 2017.
White-spotted globular bug (Eysarcoris guttigerus)
White-spotted globular bug, Eysarcoris guttigerus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The bright white spots on either edge of the scutellum (the triangle-shaped structure at the rear of its thorax) show up very well in this white-spotted globular bug, which is also sometimes called a two-spotted sesame bug. Some individuals may be lighter brown in color with a wide, tan stripe down the middle of the scutellum.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Thank you for the ID, Eric! Location: Bang Krang, Thailand. Date: 13 July, 2023.
Stink bug (Thyanta pallidovirens)
Thyanta pallidovirens (no specific common name), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Thyanta pallidovirenslooks nearly identical to the red-shouldered stink bug (Thylanta custator), ... except for the underside. According to BugGuide, the difference is that the red-shouldered stink bug has black spots around the edge of the underside of the abdomen, and Thyanta pallidovirens either has none (as shown above) or has only very tiny black spots.
□ Like the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens may be beige or green, and the green ones of both species often have a red band across the center of the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) and up the sides of the pronotum. To see the red band, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed and identified as a stink bug by: Thomas Langhans. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. See Thomas’s full-size images here and here. Location: city of San Bruno, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 17 August, 2023.
Thomas says it had a body length of about 11 mm (0.4 inches). He says, “Another bug I found crawling on our car, I sometimes wish they hadn’t named it ‘Leaf’!”
Red-Shouldered Stink Bug (Thyanta custator)
Red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Based on this bug’s location in northern California and its appearance, it appears to be a nymph of a red-shouldered stink bug, and could be either the species Thyanta custator or Thyanta pallidovirens. Younger nymphs of either species are often darker brown. This one is mostly white and tan, and has fairly large wing buds, so it is an older nymph and will soon become an adult.
Photographed by: Julie Stagg. Location: northern California, USA. Date: 23 September, 2023.
Julie does monarch butterfly conservation volunteer work. Go Julie!
Red-shouldered Stink Bug (Thyanta custator)
Red-shouldered stink bug, nymph, Thyanta custator, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This nymph of a red-shouldered stink bug has a white abdomen with numerous stripes, but otherwise is mainly reddish brown with a faint light-colored spot toward each outer edge of its scutellum (the triangle-shaped structure at the rear of its thorax).
□ To see the adult, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed by: Lisa M. Bakos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Diablo, California, USA. Date: 22 June, 2022.
Neotropical Red-shouldered Stink Bug (Thyanta perditor)
Neotropical red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta perditor, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Neotropical red-shouldered stink bugs are sometimes called brown stem bugs. The common names change with the seasons: In the summer, they are typically green with a red to reddish-brown band across the “shoulders,” but in winter, they are usually brown with the shoulder band more subtle in appearance.
Photographed and identified by: Paul Davis. Well done on the ID, Paul! Location: Costa Rica. Date: 2016.
Bark Stink Bug (Cosmopepla lintneriana)
Bark stink bug, nymph, in the scientific genus Coenomorpha, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is the nymph of a bark stink bug. Once it becomes an adult, it will have a mottled brown color, which does help it blend into the background when it is sitting on the bark of a tree. To see the adult, click here (Beetles of Africa).
Photographed by: Sarah Park. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Central African Republic. Date: 4 November, 2019.
Sarah says, “I found this interesting insect on my hibiscus plant. It was there for a couple of days, then moved over to the rosebush next door.” She adds, “Thanks for your website. It is really interesting (although there are definitely possibilities of nightmares there!)”
Try the key!
Forest bug (Pentatoma rufipes)
Forest bug, Pentatoma rufipes, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The spot in the middle of this forest bug’s back may be colored cream to red. Specifically, the spot is located at the rear tip of the scutellum (the triangle-shaped structure at the rear of its thorax).
Photographed by: Grant Spurr. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Cheshire County in northwest England, UK. Date: 18 September, 2017.
Grant says, “It was spotted in the garden in Cheshire. The spot on its back and around the edges of the body are red.”
Forest bug (Pentatoma rufipes)
Forest bug, Pentatoma rufipes, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Compared to the last entry, this forest bug is more brown, has redder legs, and has a barely visible orange spot at the rear tip of its scutellum (the triangle-shaped structure at the rear of its thorax). The red legs give it another common name: red-legged shield bug.
Photographed and identified by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Nicely done, Jean-Louis! Location: Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK. Date: 18 September, 2022.
Jean-Louis says he managed to get this photo “in spite of the heatwave and drought experienced in Oxford.”
Forest bug (Pentatoma rufipes)
Forest bug, also known as a red-legged shield bug, nymph, Pentatoma rufipes, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is the nymph of a forest bug, likely the last instar (or stage) before becoming an adult. A photo of the adult of this species is posted previously on this page.
Photographed by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 1 August, 2018.
Green shield bug (Palomena prasina)
Green shield bug, Palomena prasina, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Other than the different overall coloration, the green shield bug has very similar features to the brown marmorated stink bug (shown elsewhere on this page), including the narrow brown and white “trim” around the outside.
Photographed by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 23 August, 2016.
Jean-Louis says, “Found in our garden on a piece of wood.”
Green shield bug (Palomena prasina)
Green shield bug, Palomena prasina, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The color of this green shield bug has a bit more brown than is typical. Some individuals in this species may be even browner still.
Photographed and identified by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Well done on the ID, Bryan! Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 11 February, 2018.
Bryan says, “This is my first bug of the year!” KnowYourInsects.org says, “Happy Bug Day, Bryan!”
Green shield bug (Palomena prasina)
Green shield bugs, mating pair, Palomena prasina, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The back half of the hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) in the green shield bug overlap and may appear as a brown oval shape (as seen here) or diamond shape. That back half is membranous, while the front half is much thicker and green.
Photographed and identified by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 3 May, 2018.
Bryan says, “Sun came out this morning, nice walk, but when I returned home, found these two green shield bugs mating. Can’t turn one’s back for a minute!!”
Green shield bug (Palomena prasina)
Green shield bug, Palomena prasina, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The green shield bug and other members of the family Pentatomidae have five segments in each antennae. Click on the photo to see the segments, which are indicated by red arrows). In fact, the “penta” in Pentatomidae means five and refers to this feature.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Well done on the ID, Eric! Location: Lille, France. Date: 8 June, 2023.
Green shield bug (Palomena prasina)
Green shield bug, fourth instar nymph, Palomena prasina, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is a nymph (immature) of a green shield bug. It will go through one more stage (the fifth instar) before becoming an adult. Photos of the adult of this species are posted previously on this page.
Photographed and identified by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 1 August, 2018.
Green shield bug (Palomena prasina)
Green shield bug, fifth instar nymph, Palomena prasina, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This green shield bug is in its fifth and final stage (fifth instar) as a nymph. Afterward, it will become an adult (also known as an imago). Some fifth-instar nymphs have a black pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) and wing buds, rather than green as shown here. Photos of the adult of this species are posted previously on this page.
Photographed and identified by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 21 August, 2019.
Insect facts
Insects in the family Pentatomidae may be called stink bugs or shield bugs. Stink bug is used in the United States, and refers to the strong odor the insects release when they feel threatened. Shield bug is used in the United Kingdom and refers to their shield-like body shape.
Gorse Shield Bug (Piezodorus lituratus)
Gorse shield bug, nymph, Piezodorus lituratus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is the nymph of a gorse shield bug. It is commonly found on gorse (Ulex europaeus), which is a spiny-leaved, yellow-flowered shrub common to western Europe.
□ Gorse shield bugs often appear in two batches: early summer when the adults are typically all green, and later summer when the adults are mainly reddish-brown. To see both adults, click here (NatureSpot.org).
Photographed by: Jade Amy Balkman. Submitted by: Jade’s father John Balkman. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: between Wells-next-the-Sea and Holkham, Norfolk, UK. Date: 2 August, 2023.
John says they found it in a forested area, adjacent to the beach.
Stink Bug (Carbula scutellata)
Carbula scutellata (no specific common name), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Carbula scutellata is one of the many species of stink bugs. Features of Carbula scutellata include three, somewhat-connected, yellow spots on its scutellum (the triangle-shaped structure at the rear of its thorax), and sharp points on the two outside tips of its pronotum.
Photographed by: Bhuvan Raj. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Date: 17 October, 2019.
Hairy Shield Bug (Dolycoris baccarum)
Hairy shield bug, Dolycoris baccarum, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This colorful hairy shield bug has a rich purplish back, and it is covered in short setae (insect “hairs”), which can be seen on the legs in this photo. The purplish color turns brown in the winter. Other features are the black-and-white trim, and black-and-white striped antennae. See the photographer’s comment below.
Photographed and identified by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Well done on the ID, Bryan! Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 22 June, 2019.
Bryan says, “Nearly caught me out, looks like the colours have ‘swapped places’ with those on the birch shield bug!”
Hairy Shield Bug (Dolycoris baccarum)
Hairy shield bug, Dolycoris baccarum, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The hairy shield bug is also sometimes called a sloe bug. One of the characteristics of this bug is the light-colored tip on the scutellum (the triangle-shaped structure at the rear of its thorax). Even when this insect takes on its dull-brown winter coloration, the scutellum remains light-colored.
Photographed by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 15 July, 2019.
Bagrada bug or Painted bug (Bagrada hilaris)
Bagrada bug, also known as a painted bug, Bagrada hilaris, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Bagrada bugs are quite small insects at just 5-7 mm long (0.2-0.3 inches). They are found in southern Asia, southern Africa, and eastern Africa, and they have recently been introduced to the western and southern United States.
Photographed by: Muhammad Arshad, Entomology, UOS, Pakistan. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Date: 25 April, 2018.
Muhammad says he found this one in a sunflower field.
Bagrada bug or Painted bug (Bagrada hilaris)
Bagrada bug, also known as a painted bug, Bagrada hilaris, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This bagrada bug measured about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long. Bagrada bugs eat a variety of plants, and when present in number, they can be pests of cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and other cruciferous plants. For more information about this insect (and how to control it), click here (University of Florida “Featured Creatures” website).
Photographed by: Thomas Langhans. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. See Thomas’s full-size images here and here. Location: city of San Bruno, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 8 September, 2021.
Thomas says, “What bulging eyes! The colors and patterns always amaze me.”
Rough Stink Bug (Brochymena spp.)
Brochymena affinis (no specific common name), subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This series of photos gives an excellent view of the details of Brochymena affinis, which is one of the species collectively known as rough stink bugs. Highly recommended: Click on the photo series above to zoom in, or go directly to the photographer’s Flickr pages (see below) to see this stink bug up close.
□ The left photo shows the entire insect, including the bull’s-eye leg markings. The center photo provides a closer look at the landscape of tiny puncture marks on its pronotum, scutellum and hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back), along with a pair of parallel ridges on its head. The third photo is a close-up of its long mouthparts, which are folded back from the tip of the head and under the body. The final photo provides a view of the small teeth at the front of the pronotum.
Photographed and identified to family by: Thomas Langhans. See Thomas’s full-size images here, here, here and here. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: city of San Bruno, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 7 February, 2023.
Thomas said this stink bug was about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long.
Insect facts
Rough stink bugs look a lot like brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSBs). One way to tell them apart is to look for tiny teeth jutting out from the front of the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax): the rough stink bugs have them; BMSB do not. Both rough stink bugs and BMSBs are shown on this page.
Rough Stink Bug (Brochymena spp.)
A rough stink bug in the genus Brochymena, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The number of rough stink bugs has been declining in North America ever since the non-native and invasive stink bug called the brown marmorated stink bug (shown elsewhere on this page) arrived and began taking over territory where the rough stink bug is found.
Photographed by: Karen Skowron. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Date: 28 January, 2018.
Karen describes watching “its unusual behaviour of twirling around and how it calmed down when I put down a piece of paper and took its photo.”
Rough Stink Bug (Brochymena spp.)
A rough stink bug in the genus Brochymena, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The photographer asked if this was the invasive brown marmorated stink bug that has spread throughout much of the United States. A close look with a hand lens, however, would reveal a row of little teeth on the leading edge of the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) — in the “shoulder” area adjacent to the eyes. Rough stink bugs have the teeth, but brown marmorated stink bugs do not. This one has teeth, so it is a rough stink bug.
Photographed by: Tara Castleberry. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Boise, Idaho, USA. Date: 29 September, 2018.
Tara says it came to her mountain home with the cooler weather. She is “thrilled it isn’t the invasive stinker :). ”
Rough Stink Bug (Brochymena spp.)
Rough stink bug (sometimes called the predatory stink bug), in the genus Brochymena, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Although rough stink bugs sometimes go by the alternate common name of predatory stink bugs, their diet primarily consists of bites of leaves and new-forming tree seeds.
Photographed by: Nora Schwab. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Fair Oaks, California, USA. Date: 22 January, 2023.
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Click on the photo to zoom in and see the amazing detail in this photo of a brown marmorated stink bug.
Photographed and identified by: Charlie Winstead. Nice ID, Charlie! Location: Warrick County, Indiana, USA. Date: Late autumn, 2014.
Charlie says this stink bug “settled in on the front window screen — most likely his (or her) final resting place for the coming winter season. At 50°F (10°C), he was motionless — allowing me to make several exposures with different focus points to combine (stacked) for this image.”
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ These images show the brown marmorated stink bug from the top and from the bottom.
Brown marmorated stink bugs are native to Asia. In the mid-1990s, however, they were mistakenly introduced to the United States, where they have become a major agricultural pest.
Photographed by: Jodi H. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Date: 7 November, 2017.
Jodi says, “I have found 2 of these bugs dead in my house.”
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This image of a brown marmorated stink bugs provides an idea of the size of this insect. Adults have a body length of about 1.7 cm (2/3 of an inch).
Photographed by: Cindy Core. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Dearborn, Michigan, USA. Date: 1 August, 2015.
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ To learn more about the brown marmorated stink bug and efforts to control this agricultural pest in the United States, click here (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).
Photographed by: Maria Slowinski. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Union Pier, Michigan, USA. Date: 15 October, 2016.
Maria says, “We have a bit of a family of them flying around our cottage.”
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ And here is a brown marmorated stink bug from Paris — they do get around!
Photographed by: François Robin-Champigneul. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Paris, France. Date: 7 December, 2017.
François says, “I’m not sure where it came from, possibly from my window but it could come also, I think, from a parcel I received from the USA or China, I’m not sure.” KnowYourInsects.org says, “Insects do indeed travel by air, ship, automobile, and just about any other kind of human transportation.”
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Brown marmorated stink bug, nymph (immature), Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The striped antennae and legs, along with the dark and light edge around the abdomen, are characteristic features of brown marmorated stink bugs.
Photographed by: Carlo Castoro. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Pasadena, Maryland, USA. Date: 9 September, 2017.
brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
Stink bug, nymph (immature), possibly brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Click on this photo to get a closer view of this stink bug. Photographed by: Gosal Das. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Agartala, Tripura, India. Date: 3 April, 2017.
Stink Bug (Chlorocoris spp.)
Stink bug, nymph, in the genus Chlorocoris, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This stink bug nymph has orange/red legs, banded antennae, and light half-circle markings around the edge of the abdomen.
Photographed and identified as a stink bug by: Mark Magers. Identified to genus by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: near Lake Chapala in Jalisco, Mexico. Date: 16 April, 2021.
Shield bug (Troilus luridus) eggs
Eggs, possibly eggs of the shield bug Troilus luridus, subfamily Pentatominae, family Pentatomidae.
Photographed and identified by: Bruna Oliveira. Excellent ID work, Bruna! Location: Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Date: 29 June, 2016.
Bruna wondered if Troilus luridus had been reported in Michigan, but a check with two Michigan State University entomologists had no reports of it as of summer 2016.
Insect facts
The family name for stink and shield bugs is Pentatomidae, which translates to five parts or five sections. This refers to the number of segments in each antennae. Note: The segment nearest the head is often very small.
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Insect facts
Most stink bugs are vegetarians, but one group (the subfamily Asopinae) prey on other animals, particularly other invertebrates, and are therefore known as predatory stink bugs.
Predatory stink bug nymph (subfamily Asopinae)
Predatory stink bug, nymphs (immatures), subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The nymph (immature) of a predatory stink bug is attacking a large sawfly larva in this photo, which shows the stink bug’s long piercing moutparts. To learn more about the different families of sawflies, click here to see the KnowYourInsects.org photos that readers have sent in.
Photographed by: Rabiya Ather. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: southern Ontario, Canada. Date: 18 July, 2020.
Rabiya found these two “fighting in my front lawn,” and adds “My kids are really interested in animal and insect life.”
Predatory stink bug nymph (Podisus spp.)
Predatory stink bug, nymph (immature), in the genus Podisus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ With the outlining on the head and pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), and radiating stripes on its abdomen, this nymph (immature) of a predatory stink bug is quite striking.
Photographed by: Tammy Franck. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: northwest Illinois, USA. Date: 17 June, 2021.
Tammy found this nymph on her black currant ( Ribes nigrum) bushes.
Predatory stink bug nymph (Podisus spp.)
Predatory stink bug, nymph (immature), in the genus Podisus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The photographer found this predatory stink bug eating the larvae of Colorado potato beetles. See her comment below. To learn more about Colorado potato beetles and see the photos readers have sent in, click here.
Photographed by: Loie Byville. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: western Michigan, USA. Date: 9 July, 2021.
After spotting this bug killing pest beetle larvae, Loie says “Need more of him!”
Spined Soldier Bug (Podisus maculivantris)
Spined soldier bug, nymph (immature), Podisus maculivantris, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is tentatively identified as a nymph of a spined soldier bug, whichg has different appearances as it goes through its lifespan of egg, nymph (shown here) and adult. Even the nymphs go through five different-looking stages, or instars. To see the variety in this species, click here (University of Florida “Featured Creatures” website).
Photographed by: Tiffany Barton. Identified to genus and tentative species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Columbia, Missouri, USA. Date: June 2021.
Tiffany says, “I have been unsuccessful in identifying this cutie for years!” KnowYourInsects.org says, “Nymphs are tricky!”
Anchor Stink Bug (Stiretrus anchorago)
Anchor stink bug, nymph, Stiretrus anchorago, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The anchor stink bug preys on caterpillars and beetle larvae, and is especially fond of beetle larvae that feed on beans and potatoes, so it is often seen in gardens.
Photographed by: Doug Neyer. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Wayne Township, Pennsylvania, USA. Date: 1 August, 2020.
Doug says, “I have lived out in the country for 20 years, and this is the first time that I ever saw one of its kind.”
Anchor Stink Bug (Stiretrus anchorago)
Anchor stink bug, Stiretrus anchorago, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ As an adult, the anchor stink bug has a wide range of appearances. Some are cream and black; others are orange and black. Some have a pattern as seen here, and others have much more black. To see the variety, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed and identified by: Grant MacDonald. Well done on the ID, Grant! Location: Avon Nature Study Area, Rochester, Michigan, USA. Date: 23 August, 2020.
Anchor Stink Bug (Stiretrus anchorago)
Anchor stink bug, Stiretrus anchorago, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The photographer described this anchor stink bug as “pink with black spots and reddish legs.” This individual has very little black compared to some others. (It was moving quickly, so difficult to photograph.)
Photographed by: Austin Winkelman. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, USA. Date: 17 August, 2020.
Austin says, “So I was sitting on my deck (when it) flew at my daughter. Made her scream. Was kinda funny.”
Florida Predatory Stink Bug (Euthyrhynchus floridanus)
Florida predatory stink bug, also known as a Halloween Bug, Euthyrhynchus floridanus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This Florida predatory stink bug is showing off its predatory nature: That is a small prey creature that is speared on the end of its beak-like mouthparts. For more information on this bug, including some photos of its immature form (nymph), click here (University of Florida “Featured Creatures” website).
Photographed by: teacher Denise Jenkins and her class K3 and K4 at Centreville Academy. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Centreville Academy playground, Centreville, Mississippi, USA. Date: 20 October, 2018.
Denise says, “Thanks for all the information. My class thinks it so cool that you emailed me back and they know what kind of bug was on their playground.” KnowYourInsects.org says, “Happy to help!”
Florida Predatory Stink Bug (Euthyrhynchus floridanus)
Florida predatory stink bugs, also known as a Halloween bug, nymphs (immatures), Euthyrhynchus floridanus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
Florida predatory stink bugs have some variation in the color: This one is dark green with orange markings, while others are black or purplish-black with orange or orange-red markings.
Photographed by: Stacy Mebane. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Fayetteville, North Carolina, USA. Date: 12 October, 2020.
Florida predatory stink bug (Euthyrhynchus floridanus)
Florida predatory stink bug, also known as a Halloween bug, Euthyrhynchus floridanus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The Florida predatory stink bug is indeed predatory, and preys upon a variety of beetles and caterpillars that are garden pests, so this stink bug is considered beneficial.
Photographed by: James Marley. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Triad area of North Carolina, USA. Date: 13 November, 2019.
Muhammad says he found this one in a sunflower field.
Florida Predatory Stink Bug (Euthyrhynchus floridanus)
Florida predatory stink bugs, also known as Halloween bugs, nymphs (immature), Euthyrhynchus floridanus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ These nymphs of the Florida predatory stink bug have recently hatched from their eggs. They will go through four more instars, or stages, before becoming an adult. Like the adults, the nymphs are predatory and are considered beneficial because they help reduce garden pests.
Photographed by: Tamron Waters. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Rocky Point, North Carolina, USA. Date: 29 March, 2020.
Tamron says, “They popped out from our outdoor water reel. Scared me to death, all these little creatures. I’ve never seen this before.”
Two-spotted stink bug (Perillus bioculatus)
Two-spotted stink bug, Perillus bioculatus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is the “tan form” of this pretty two-spotted stink bug. It also comes in a red form (see the next photo). Two-spotted stink bugs are beneficial insects that prey on garden pests.
Photographed by: Sylvia Ringmacher. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Dilley, Texas, USA. Date: 27 October, 2018.
Two-spotted stink bug (Perillus bioculatus)
Two-spotted stink bug, Perillus bioculatus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is the “red form” of the two-spotted stink bug. Some individuals have more of the orange-red accents, particularly outlining the scutellum (triangular-shaped structure at the rear of the thorax).
Photographed and identified by: Stephanie Hogle. Great identification, Stephanie! Location: Clinton County, Michigan, USA. Date: 17 September, 2020.
Stephanie spotted this stink bug on her lantana.
Two-spotted stink bug (Perillus bioculatus)
Two-spotted stink bug, Perillus bioculatus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ If you did not know better, you might think someone painted on this art-deco pattern! The tan form of the two-spotted stink bug (shown here) is usually a bit more ornate than the red form.
Photographed by: Angela Johnson. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Cascade, Montana, USA. Date: December, 2017.
Angela says, “Found this beetle on a window in our house. In December!” KnowYourInsects.org says, “While it is often assumed to be a beetle, this is actually a stink bug, which is in an entirely different insect order. Such a cool bug!”
Two-spotted Stink Bug (Perillus bioculatus)
Two-spotted stink bug, nymph, Perillus bioculatus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ Nymphs of two-spotted stink bugs are typically spotted with this appearance: a black head, pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) and wing buds; and a black, central, abdominal spot with three short white lines inside. The red/orange abdominal area seen here is separated by bands, which may be orange, yellow or ivory).
Photographed and identified by: Anne Guelker. Well done on the ID, Anne! Location: Missouri Ozarks, Missouri, USA. Date: 29 October, 2017.
Two-Spotted Stink bug nymph (Perillus bioculatus)
Stink bug, nymph (immature), possibly a two-spotted stink bug, Perillus bioculatus, subfamily Asopinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This is a nymph of one of the stink bugs, but even after checking with four stink bug experts, we cannot be sure of the species. The photographer found it on potato plants, hinting that it was a two-spotted stink bug, which prey on potato beetles.
Photographed by: Jenny Hotz. Identification assistance provided by: entomologist Robert Koch of the University of Minnesota, and Tom Coudron of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service, who also consulted two other stink bug experts. Thank you all! Location: Unknown. Date: 26 July, 2017.
Jenny says, “We’ve named it the stormtrooper bug :)”
European Striped Shield Bug (Graphosoma italicum)
European striped shield bug, Graphosoma italicum, subfamily Edessinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ This European striped shield bug looks to be dressed for a party or perhaps a circus. It is sometimes (appropriately) called a minstrel bug, and is also known as an Italian striped bug.
Photographed and identified by: Diana Luntena. Nicely done, Diana! Location: Riga, Latvia. Date: 18 July, 2023.
Diana found this eye-catching insect on her balcony, where she has a small garden.
Turquoise Shield Bug (Edessa rufomarginata)
Turquoise shield bug, Edessa rufomarginata, subfamily Edessinae, family Pentatomidae.
□ The striking turquoise shield bug is found from Mexico through Central America and South America as far south as Argentina. The adult female uses her hind legs to carefully position newly laid eggs on a plant, perhaps as a way to secure the egg so it does not roll to the ground, according to a 2010 study (the journal Environmental Entomology.
Photographed and identified by: Paul Davis. Well done on the ID, Paul! Location: Mexico. Date: 2013.
Ancyrosoma leucogrammes
Ancyrosoma leucogrammes (no specific common name), subfamily Podopinae, family Pentatomidae.
Ancyrosoma leucogrammes is one of the species collectively known as turtle bugs (subfamily Podopinae). Turtle bugs are named for the enlarged scutellum (outlined in yellow in image at right) that looks like a shell covering the abdomen and most of the wings. This species may be reddish-brown or grayish-brown with the cream-colored stripes seen here.
Photographed by: Yanni Petropoulos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Greece. Date: 15 September, 2023.
Sting Bug Eggs (Pentatomidae)
Stink/shield bug, eggs, family Pentatomidae.
□ This photo shows a grouping of stink bug eggs on sugar cane. The species of the stink bug is unknown.
Photographed by: Mr. Mahesh DW. Identified to family by: Ajay Jadhao. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Nanded, Maharashtra, India. Date: 6 September, 2020.
Insect facts
Many stink bug eggs have round tops that come off when the eggs hatch and the young emerge. The rim of the lid is often not visible until it opens.
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Thyreocoridae (the ebony bugs)

Ebony Bug (Cydnoides spp.)
Ebony bug, possibly in the genus Cydnoides, family Thyreocoridae.
Ebony bugs are small, quite round insects related to stink bugs (family Pentatomidae). This one was just 4 mm (less that 0.2 inches) in body length.
□ At first glance, these bugs look quite similar to beetles, particularly beetles in the family Histeridae, but ebony bugs have beak-like mouthparts and beetles do not. Look very carefully at the side view and underside here to see the long beak that bends back and curves down along its underside. To see a similar-looking beetle in the family Histeridae, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed by: Thomas Langhans. See Thomas’s full-size images here, here and here. Location: San Bruno, county of San Mateo, California, USA. Date: 6 July, 2020.
Thomas says, “Liked to rub its antenna.”
See the variety!

Plataspidae (the plataspid stink bugs)

Black Stink Bug (Coptosoma xanthogramma)
Black stink bug, Coptosoma xanthogramma, subfamily Coptosomatinae, family Plataspidae.
□ The black stink bug has a gold border around its back, doubled gold trim around its head and pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), two oblong gold spots, a gold face, and striking red eyes.
□ This black stink bug was photographed in Hawaii, where it was first reported in that state in 1965. It is believed to be native to the Philippines. It is a pest of beans and other legumes, jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys), maunaloa vine (Canavalia cathartica), and other ornamental plants, according to a 1967 study of this bug (the journal Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society). Little else is known about this bug or the entire Plataspidae family.
Photographed by: Levent Akinci. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Date: 31 May, 2020.
Levent spotted this black stink bug on cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) in the garden, and says, “I thought it was some sort of lady beetle, but couldn’t find anything that matched.”
Kudzu bug (Megacopta cribraria)
Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria, subfamily Coptosomatinae, family Plataspidae.
□ When viewed from above, kudzu bugs have a squared-off appearance with a multitude of dark-brown specks on a yellow or orange-tan background. They feed on kudzu, soybeans and other legumes, and for this reason, they are also known as bean plataspids.
□ They are native to Asia (this one was photographed in Thailand), but as of 2010 appeared in the the state of Georgia in the United States, and have spread into adjacent states since then.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Great job on the ID, Eric! Location: Bang Krang, Thailand. Date: 30 August, 2023.

Dinidoridae (the dinidorid bugs)

Red Pumpkin Bug (Coridius janus)
Red pumpkin bug, Coridius janus, subfamily Dinidorinae, family Dinidoridae.
□ The color of the red pumpkin bug ranges from bright red (as shown here) to light orange. Although not shown in this photo, the head is quite small compared to the body.
□ It is sometimes called a cucurbit stink bug, because it not only feeds on pumpkins, but also cucumbers, melons and other plants in the cucurbit family.
Photographed by: K J Westman. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org and scientist Shalini Shivaprakash of the National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Thank you, Mr. Shivaprakash! Location: Nitulemada, Digana, Rajawella, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Date: 5 November, 2016.
Insect facts
One of the species in the Dinidoridae family — Cyclopelta subhimalayensis (no specific common name) is used by people in Assam, India, to spice their rice. To read more, click here and search for the section on Cyclopelta subhimalayensis (the journal (Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington).
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Tessaratomidae (the tessaratomid bugs)

Lychee stink bug nymph (Tessaratoma papillosa)
Lychee/litchi stink bug,
nymph (immature), Tessaratoma papillosa, subfamily Tessaratominae, family Tessaratomidae.
□ The almost-rectangular shape of the body in this nymph of a lychee stink bug becomes more rounded once it reaches its adult stage and gets its wings. To see the adult and additional nymphs, click here (EntomologyToday, newsblog of the Entomological Society of America).
Photographed by: Debajit Saha. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Assam, India. Date: 31 May, 2018.
Debajit says, “Found it in my garden.”
Lychee stink bug nymph (Tessaratoma papillosa)
Lychee/litchi stink bug, nymph (immature), Tessaratoma papillosa, subfamily Tessaratominae, family Tessaratomidae.
□ Nymphs of the lychee stink bug (also spelled litchi stink bug) have a good deal of color variation with many being quite red, as seen here, and others having more of a pink or peachy hue. Like other stink bugs, lychee stink bugs have glands at the rear of the thorax that release copious amounts of malodorous volatile chemical compounds, which are believed to discourage predators.
Photographed by: Jenny Junio Culanding. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Olongapo City, Zambales, Philippines. Date: 26 October, 2021.
Jenny found this beauty “under the mango tree.”
 Giant Shield Bug nymph (Eusthenes)
A giant shield bug, nymph (immature) in the genus Eusthenes, subfamily Tessaratominae, family Tessaratomidae.
□ This giant stink bug nymph is striking with its pink/red pattern. India appears to have at least 10 species of giant stink bugs in this genus (Eusthenes), but this genus has not yet been definitively separated into its member species.
Photographed by: Nitasha Chauhan. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Date: 10 May, 2020.
Nitasha says, “I found this insect in my apple orchard.”
Green Giant Shield Bug (Pycanum rubens)
Pycanum rubens (no specific common name), subfamily Tessaratominae, family Tessaratomidae.
Pycanum rubens comes in slightly different colors. This one is a bit on the blue side, but many individuals have more of a green shade, and some are quite brilliant green. All have the alternating orange and black pattern showing beyond the edge of the hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back).
Photographed by: Éireann. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Singapore. Date: 11 July, 2019.
Tessaratomid stink bug (Piezosternum subulatum)
Piezosternum subulatum (no specific common name), subfamily Eucoriinae, family Tessaratomidae.
□ The photographer found this Piezosternum subulatum swimming next to him in a pool. He and his wife provided an excellent description of this approximately 12 mm (0.5 inch) bug in the comments below.
Photographed by: Juraj Bajgar. Submitted by: Juraj’s wife Clara Bajgar. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: San Juan, Puerto Rico. Date: 17 January, 2019.
Clara says, “He picked it out, took it to his room and tried to take a photo, in artificial lighting. Apparently the bug is partly fluorescent green-blue and pretty. To me it looks like a Panzer WWII tank that ran against a wall and lost his cannon.”
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Acanthosomatidae (the shield bugs)

Hawthorne shield bug (Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale)
Hawthorn shield bug, Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale, family Acanthosomatidae.
□ The hemmorrhoid reference in the scientific name (Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale) of this hawthorn shield bug refers to the reddish rear end. Note also the red-tinged spines at the outer edge of its pronotum (the shield covering the thorax).
□ A favorite food of this bug is the fruits of hawthorn trees (in the genus Crataegus, which is where it gets its common name. These images are frames from a video the photographer captured moments before the insect took flight and disappeared from view.
Photographed by: Jim Seekers. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Edinburgh, Scotland. Date: 14 June, 2019.
Jim says he found this insect on the outside of his bedroom window.
Hawthorne shield bug (Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale)
Hawthorn shield bug, Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale, family Acanthosomatidae.
□ The hawthorn shield bug’s pronotum (the shield covering the thorax) has two spines, one at each “shoulder,” and a characteristic green-and-brown color pattern.
Photographed by: Val Watson. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Kintore Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Date: 10 September, 2019.
Val spotted it on the door outside her work.
Birch shield bug (Elasmostethus interstinctus)
Birch shield bug, Elasmostethus interstinctus, family Acanthosomatidae.
□ The adult birch shield bug is green splashed with red or brown. Some have more red/brown than others. This one has a bit less than typical.
Photographed and identified to order by: Chris Gregg. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK. Date: 23 October, 2021.
Birch shield bug (Elasmostethus interstinctus)
Birch shield bug, nymph, Elasmostethus interstinctus, family Acanthosomatidae.
□ This is a nymph of a birch shield bug, and specifically it is the fifth instar, which is the last stage of an immature bug before becoming an adult.
Photographed by: Jostein Håvard Kolnes. Identified by: Dr. Leslie Mertz. Location: Stavanger-area, Norway. Date: July, 2012.
Juniper shield bug (Cyphostethus tristriatus)
Juniper shield bug, Cyphostethus tristriatus, family Acanthosomatidae.
□ Compare this juniper shield bug to the hawthorn shield bug (Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale), shown previously on this page The two species look quite similar, but the juniper shield bug has a broken X shape on the rear half of its hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back).
Photographed and identified by: Bryan Wenham-Baker. Well done on the ID, Bryan! Location: Near Ivybridge, South Hams, South Devon, England, UK. Date: 13 October, 2018.
Bryan describes it as “so colorful” and adds that it was about 1 cm (0.4 inch) long.
Juniper shield bug (Cyphostethus tristriatus)
Juniper shield bug, Cyphostethus tristriatus, family Acanthosomatidae.
□ The juniper shield bug feeds mainly on juniper berries, although it has also recently moved on to munching on Lawson’s cypress, according to BritishBugs.org.
□ The two slashes of color on this individual’s back are quite red, while other individuals may have a more toned-down brown color.
Photographed and identified by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Nice ID, Jean-Louis! Location: Oxford, UK. Date: 16 October, 2020.

Scutelleridae (the metallic shield bugs or jewel bugs)

Scutellerid Shield Bug (Deroplax silphoides)
Deroplax silphoides (no specific common name), subfamily Hoteinae, family Scutelleridae.
Deroplax silphoides is quite new to Israel, where this photo was taken. In fact, the first one was reported only in 2002. It was “first discovered in the southern Negev in 2002, Central Negev (Yeroham) in 2010, and in 2013 it spread to Be'er Sheva',” according to a 2015 description (Israel Journal of Entomology). It is native to the tropical areas of Africa.
Photographed by: Oleg Lisak. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: central Israel. Date: 23 July, 2021.
Lychee shield bug (Chrysocoris stollii)
Lychee shield bug, also known as green jewel bug, Chrysocoris stollii, subfamily Scutellerinae, family Scutelleridae.
□ From the top (dorsal) side, this lychee shield bug is metallic green with black spots. This species has quite a bit of variability in the pattern and size of the black spots, and some even have hints of red here mixed in with the green metallic on the dorsal side.
□ From the bottom, it is orange-red edged with black-spotted, metallic green. The orange-red is evident in the right photo.
Photographed by: Ajay Antony. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Tamil Nadu, India. Date: 6 May, 2017.
Insect facts
Metallic shield bugs (family Scutelleridae) are known for their huge scutellum. In most other true bugs, the scutellum is a triangular-shaped structure the sits between the wings. In metallic shield bugs, however, the scutellum covers most of their backs, including their wings, which remain out of sight when the insect is at rest (not flying).
Green Jewel Bug (Chrysocoris stockerus)
Chrysocoris stockerus (no specific common name), subfamily Scutellerinae, family Scutelleridae.
Chrysocoris stockerus has a number of black markings, including three on its pronotum, an oblong one on its head; and an oblong marking on its scutellum (the area covering most of its back behind the thorax) that is flanked by four round markings and followed by two squarish markings at the rear.
Photographed by: K J Westman. Identified by: Audrey Maran. Location: Nitulemada, Digana, Rajawella, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Date: 31 December, 2014.
K J says, “I had a very good teacher in biology at school. He had travelled with the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin in Asia and I have ever after enjoyed the colors and patterns you find everywhere in nature.”
Tea Seed Bugs, also known as Camillia Shield Bugs (Poecilocoris latus)
Tea seed bugs, nymphs (immature), Poecilocoris latus, subfamily Scutellerinae, family Scutelleridae.
□ These nymphs of tea seed bugs are pretty blends of orange-red, tan and cream. To see the adult tea seed bug, click here (iNaturalist.org).
□ They are pests of tea plants. They are sometimes known as camellia shield bugs (Camellia is the genus of tea plants).
Photographed by: Senrita Raksam Marak. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: William Nagar, Meghalaya, India. Date: 25 June, 2019.
Metallic Shield Bug (Scutiphora pedicellata)
Scutiphora pedicellata (no specific common name), fourth or fifth instar nymph (immature), subfamily Scutellerinae, family Scutelleridae.
□ This group of Scutiphora pedicellata nymphs glimmer in green against a rich-yellow background. See the comment below for a cool description. The adults are green or bronze metallic and sport a pair of orange spots behind the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), as well as orange trim around the edge of the pronotum. To see the adult (and more photos of the nymph), click here (BrisbaneInsects.com).
Photographed and identified by: Ros Miller. Well done on the ID, Ros! Location: Sentinel Lookout Track, Cataract Gorge Reserve in Launceston, Tasmania. Date: 2017.
Ros says, “I thought it particularly interesting that the bugs appear to have a map of Tasmania on their back.”
Shield Bug nymphs (Orsilochides spp.)
Metallic shield bugs, nymphs (immatures), possibly in the genus Orsilochides, subfamily Pachycorinae, family Scutelleridae.
□ These metallic shield bug nymphs are quite attractive with their striping, spots and speckling. These appear to be nymphs of one of the species in the genus Orsilochides, possibly Orsilochides stictica (no specific common name).
Photographed by: Jan Golden. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Houston Arboretum, Houston, Texas, USA. Date: 30 September, 2021.
Insect facts
Nymphs of metallic shield bugs often have a scalloped-looking rear edge on the pronotum (the shield covering the thorax). The two outside scallops are actually wing buds, which will become functional wings once the bug becomes an adult.
European tortoise bug (Eurygaster maura)
A European tortoise bug, either Eurygaster maura or Eurygaster testudinaria, subfamily Eurygasterinae, family Scutelleridae.
□ The tortoise bugs Eurygaster maura or Eurygaster testudinaria are nearly indistinguishable, and require examination of male reproductive parts to tell them apart. Both are primarily brown, sometimes with a reddish or grayish tint, and have two, short, narrow, white marks at the front of the scutellum. Some individuals have more conspicuous patterning than others.
Photographed and identified by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Nicely done on the ID, Jean-Louis! Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 9 September, 2023.
Shield-backed bug (Eurygaster amerinda)
A metallic shield bug, nymph (immature), possibly Eurygaster amerinda, subfamily Eurygastrinae, family Scutelleridae.
□ This metallic shield bug nymph’s head is completely covered by its shield-like pronotum. A close inspection shows that it has V-shaped striping on the pronotum, as well as V-shaped striping (facing the opposite way) on its scutellum, the structure immediately behind the pronotum. In adults, the scutellum will be enlarged to cover most of the back.
Photographed and identified to family by: Dianna Walter. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Pennock Mountain, outside of Saratoga, Wyoming, USA. Date: 7 July, 2018.
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Cydnidae (the burrowing bugs)

Pied Shield Bug (Tritomegas bicolor)
Pied shield bug, nymph (immature), Tritomegas bicolor, subfamily Sehirinae, family Cydnidae.
□ This nymph of pied shield bug looks quite similar to that of a closely related species called Rambur’s pied shield bug (Tritomegan sexmaculatus), but the latter has larger black spots around the edge of the abdomen. To see the adult pied shield bug, click here (iNaturalist.org).
Photographed by: Emma Hern. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Suffolk, UK. Date: 26 July, 2021.
Insect facts
The word pied in the common name of some species, such as the pied shield bug pictured on this page, means that it has at least two colors. This is a term used for other animals, too. An example is the pied-billed grebe, which is a bird with a two-colored bill (a black band on a white bill). To see the pied-billed grebe, click here (Cornell University’s AllAboutBirds.org).
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Pyrrhocoridae (the red bugs)

Firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus)
Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ Mating pairs of firebugs may remain connected (as this pair is) for up to seven days. The photographer took this photo during the firebugs’ mating season (during spring in Sweden).
Photographed and identified by: K J Westman. Well done on the ID, K J! Location: Hallsta, Gnesta, Sweden. Date: 15 April, 2018.
K J found others as well, and “They were they were clustered at the lower port of a lime-tree (in the genus Tilia).”
Firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus)
Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, nymph (immature), subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ The photographer found numerous firebugs on headstones in a cemetery in Poland. Click on the photos to zoom in and see just how many firebugs are visiting. A close look reveals both adults and their young, or nymphs. The nymphs have short, black “wing buds.” One adult is pictured in the lower right photo: it has rather short red wings with a black spot in the center.
□ See the photographer’s comments below to learn about the significance of this cemetery.
Photographed by: Nomi Waksberg. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Szydlowiec, Poland. Date: Summer, 2018.
Nomi says, “I noticed what appeared to be a bug infestation on cemetery headstones while in Poland this summer. The headstones are made of limestone. They are historical and many are used in assisting genealogical research for family histories where there are no other records (destroyed in WWII).”
Firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus)
Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ Adult firebugs have rather short hemelytra (forewings) — they end just after the large black spot — and membranous hindwings that are folded up beneath the hemelytra. Male hindwings are longer than those of females. To see the difference between the male and female hindwings, click here (the journal Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews).
□ A favorite food of firebugs is the seeds of trees in the genus Tilia. These trees are called lime trees in Europe (where this firebug was photographed), and linden trees in the United States.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Nicely done, Eric! Location: Lille, France. Date: 12 June 2023.
Firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus)
Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ When firebugs were reared in a U.S. lab instead of one in Europe (they are native to Europe), they stayed juveniles forever. Perplexed scientists finally figured out why: the paper towels that lined the bug jars were made from the wood of U.S. fir trees (Abies spp.), which contains a substance called juvabione that mimics the juvenile hormone of the firebugs. That caused the bugs to get stuck in puberty and never develop into adults.
Photographed and identified by: Diana Luntena. Nicely done, Diana! Location: Riga, Latvia. Date: 11 July, 2023.
Firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus)
Firebug, nymph, Pyrrhocoris apterus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ This nymph of a firebug has the characteristic black blotch within its red thorax, black wingbuds, and a trio of black dots running in a row down its abdomen.
Photographed and identified by: Diana Luntena. Nicely done, Diana! Location: Riga, Latvia. Date: 31 July, 2023.
Diana says she has seen many of these firebugs scurrying about and in some cases, mating. She adds, “They’re all so busy, it seems! Not a minute to spare.”
Insect facts
Besides the cottonstainer, the United States is home to five other species in the same genus (Dysdercus) — all quite attractive. To see the variety, click here (BugGuide).
Cottonstainer (Dysdercus suturellus)
Cottonstainer bug, Dysdercus suturellus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
Cottonstainer bug adults and older nymphs (immatures) eat cotton seeds and cotton bolls. This transmits a fungus to the plant and the fungus stains the cotton. They may also be found among orange trees and hibiscus.
Photographed by: Marv Goldberg. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Tamarac, Florida, USA. Date: 1 March, 2022.
Upon learning what this bug is, Marv says, “Aha! I’ve got some hibiscus right outside my door. It’s amazing that all these insects I never knew existed before beat their way to my door.”
Red cottonstainer bugs or Red Cotton Bugs (Dysdercus cingulatus)
Red cottonstainer bugs, adults, Dysdercus cingulatus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
Red cottonstainer bugs have two full wings called hemelytra that extend over the abdomen of the insect — each hemelytron is split into two parts: the front portion is stiff and red with the single black dot, and the back portion is black and membranous.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Location: Ayyuthaya, Thailand. Date: 12 February, 2015.
Red cottonstainer bugs or Red Cotton Bugs (Dysdercus cingulatus)
Red cottonstainer bugs, adults and nymphs (immatures), Dysdercus cingulatus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ This photo includes both the adults (one at the top and one at the lower right), and more than a dozen nymphs (immatures) of red cottonstainer bugs. See the photographer’s fun description of these insects below.
Photographed by: Uday Prabhu. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Date: 13 September, 2018.
Uday says, “Looks like Iron Man in the insect kingdom.” KnowYourInsects says, “Great description, Uday!”
Red cottonstainer bug or Red Cotton Bug (Dysdercus cingulatus)
Red cottonstainer bug, nymph (immature), Dysdercus cingulatus, subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
□ Both the adults and nymphs (immatures) of the red cottonstainer bugs have a white “necklace” and a series of white markings along their sides, as seen in this photo of a nymph. The nymphs also have small, non-functional wing pads, which are tipped in black in this photo.
Photographed by: Ben Liew. Submitted by: Owen Liu. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Singapore. Date: 9 June, 2021.
Ben says they spotted this nymph — appropriately — next to a cotton tree.
Red cottonstainer bugs or Red Cotton Bugs (Dysdercus similis)
Dysdercus similis (no specific common name), subfamily Pyrrhocorinae, family Pyrrhocoridae.
Dysdercus similis has a yellow/beige overall color with a red head, thin black and white bands behind the head, and a single black dot in about the center of each hemelytra (forewing).
Photographed by: Sravani Rayasam. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Kavali, Nellore District, India. Date: 15 January, 2020.
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See the variety!

Largidae (the bordered plant bugs)

Largus bug (Largus cinctus)
Largus cinctus (no specific common name), subfamily Larginae, family Largidae.
Largus cinctus is one of the members of the bordered plant bug family. Insects in this family are typically brown or black with a thin, colored border. The border on Largus cinctus is usually reddish orange, as shown here, but it is yellow in some individuals.
□ To see the nymphs (immatures), which look quite different, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed by: Tim Pitner. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Rouge River, Oregon, USA. Date: 6 May, 2018.
Tim says, “There were thousands of these in my friend’s driveway on the day I visited. I’ve never seen one before and the orange matches the color of my truck! So of course, I had to take a photo … right?” KnowYourInsects says, “Absolutely!”
Largus bug (Largus cinctus)
Largus cinctus (no specific common name), subfamily Larginae, family Largidae.
□ Several species of bordered plant bugs look alike, but size and location can help to narrow down the identification. This one was photographed west of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S., and had a body length of about a half inch (13 mm), which suggests it is the species Largus cinctus. Click on the photos to zoom in and see the bit of red color at the base of the antennae and the fine setae (insect “hairs”) on its body.
□ Other species in the genus Largus include Largus californicus, which is also found in the same area (California), but it has a body length almost twice that of Largus cinctus; and Largus succinctus, which is the same size as Largus cinctus, but is more common east of the Rocky Mountains.
Photographed by: Thomas Langhans. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. See Thomas’s original full-size images here, here and here. Location: San Bruno, San Mateo County, California, USA. Date: 25 September, 2023.
Thomas says, “Another one I found on a walk and trapped with my ‘Bug Bottle,’ which I now always carry with me.”
Bordered Plant Bug (Stenomacra marginella)
Bordered plant bug, Stenomacra marginella, subfamily Larginae, family Largidae.
□ The bordered plant bug shows a clear border around its folded wings, as well as a border around the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) with a line down the middle, producing a bisected rectangle pattern. This individual has a light section at the front of its pronotum, but this is not evident in all members of the species. The photographer described it as about 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) long
Photographed by: Mark Magers. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: near Lake Chapala in Jalisco, Mexico. Date: 26 June, 2021.
Mark says, “Spotted several of these fellows on my cherished chile pequin pepper plant in the backyard.”
Hump-collared plant bug (Fibrenus globicollis)
Hump-collared plant bug, Fibrenus globicollis, subfamily Larginae, family Largidae.
□ The hump-collared plant bug with its striking red pronotum (the shield covering its thorax) and black bar on the yellow hemelytra (forewings) is found from Central America to Brazil. Little is known about this brightly colored insect.
Photographed by: Todd Hawley. Identified by: Paul Davis. Thank you, Paul! Location: Costa Rica. Date: December, 2015.
Cottonstainer bug or Red Cotton Bug (Probergrothius spp.)
Macrocheraia grandis (no specific common name), nymph (immature), subfamily Physopeltinae, family Largidae.
□ This nymph of Macrocheraia grandis looks somewhat similar to the nymphs of red bugs (in the family Pyrrhocoridae), but has a long and narrow body, compared to the typically more teardrop-shaped body of a red bug. Nymphs of Macrocheraia grandis also a distinctive white tip on each antennae, a narrow flattened edge around the abdomen, and three black spots down the center of the abdomen. Adults have hemelytra (forewings) that cover about two-thirds of the abdomen. To see an adult, click here (iNaturalist.org).
Photographed by: Himashri Talukdar. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Gangtok, India. Date: 30 August, 2019.

Blissidae (the chinch bugs)

Chinch Bug (Blissus leucopterus)
Chinch Bug, nymph (immature), Blissus leucopterus, subfamily Blissinae, family Blissidae.
□ The chinch bugs go through five stages, or instars, before becoming an adult, and this one looks like a fourth-instar nymph. Most people notice the lawn damage chinch bugs cause — small to large brown patches — before seeing the tiny insects themselves. For more about chinch bugs, which can also be found in grassy fields, click here (Ohio State University Extension).
Photographed by: David Miller. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Milton, Ontario, Canada. Date: 24 July, 2020.
David says, “They seem to like the sun as well, as they are not really in the shade. My backyard is infested with these tiny bugs.”
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Insect facts
□ Would you like a list of all the Hemiptera/true bug families — in one handy place? We made one for you! To see it, click here.

Lygaeidae (the milkweed bugs and seed bugs)

Large Milkweed Bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus)
Large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
Large milkweed bugs have backs with a distinctive pattern: a large black patch, followed by a broad black horizontal band and then a second large black patch. Click on this nice close-up photo to zoom in and see the reddish-orange “V” on the head of this insect.
Photographed and identified to order by: Margaret Minor. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Balboa Park Gardens, San Diego. Date: 31 July, 2019.
Large Milkweed Bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus)
Large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ Like many other insects that feed on milkweed, large milkweed bugs ingest the plant’s chemicals (called cardiac glycosides) that make the insects distasteful to birds that might swoop down to eat them.
Photographed by: Diane Cagle. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Marietta, Georgia, USA. Date: 2 August, 2019.
Diane says, “I found this little creature on my hummingbird feeder.”
Large Milkweed Bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus)
Large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ This photo captures a large milkweed bug with its wings outstretched. This shows off its bright orange abdomen, a feature most people rarely see.
Photographed by: Terry Bates. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Wilbuton, Oklahoma. Date: 8 August, 2020.
Terry saw this large milkweed bug on a windy day in the garden. She says, “That is the first time I’ve seen a milkweed bug.”
Milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus)
Large milkweed bugs, nymphs (immatures), Oncopeltus fasciatus, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ These are nymphs (immatures) of large milkweed bugs. See the adult in the next photos.
Photographed by: Susan Barron. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Frenchtown, New Jersey, USA. Date: 18 September, 2016.
Susan found these nymphs on butterfly weed, which is a kind of milkweed plant with beautiful orange flowers.
Seed bug (Oncopeltus nigriceps)
Oncopeltus nigriceps (no specific common name), subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ This species of seed bug has a black head, and each of the hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back) is split between red-orange and black colors, with the black half decorated with a small white bar. It also has a black bar on the pronotum (the shield covering its thorax), and small white spots on the black portion of the wings.
Photographed by: Amit S. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Pune, Maharashtra, India. Date: 15 February, 2021.
Amit says, “ Few years ago, they were very common, but now it seems they shy away from humans.”
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Soldier Bug (Spilostethus pandurus)
Spilostethus pandurus (no specific common name), male, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
Spilostethus pandurus is considered an agricultural pest because it eats a variety of crop seeds, including sunflower, watermelon, squash and cantaloupe seeds.
Photographed and identified to order by: Jean-Louis Metzger. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Oxford, England, UK. Date: 5 August, 2017.
Jean-Louis estimated it at 8-10 mm (0.3-04 inches) in length.
Soldier Bug (Spilostethus pandurus)
Spilostethus pandurus (no specific common name), female, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ The female Spilostethus pandurus has a large beige blotch and thin red stripe behind the head, as seen here. The male has a red blotch in place of the beige. See the male elsewhere on this page.
Photographed by: Yanni Petropoulos. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: mainland of southwest Greece. Date: 19 April, 2020.
Yanni says, “As a kid growing up, I have seen so many of this particular insect, but what struck me is it now looks a bit different from what I remember of them as a child.”
Soldier Bug (Spilostethus pandurus)
Spilostethus pandurus (no specific common name), adult and nymph (immature), subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ The photographer was diligent, because he not only photographed the nymph (right) of Spilostethus pandurus, but later went back to find the adult, a male. The nymph has two gray-encircled black spots on its abdomen. The adult is distinguished by the pattern of black-on-red and white-on-black spots on its hemelytra (the forewings covering most of its back).
Photographed by: Hussain Alsalem. Identified by: entomologist Bertrand Horne, research fellow, Kutch Ecological Research Centre, a unit of The Corbett Foundation, Kutch, Gujarat, India. Thank you, Dr. Horne! Location: Najran City, Saudi Arabia. Date: 30, April 2018 (for the nymph), and 18 May, 2018 (for the adult).
Hussain says neither he (nor his mother) had ever seen these insects before, but found hundreds of the nymphs near home.
Soldier Bug (Spilostethus pandurus)
Spilostethus pandurus (no specific common name), subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
Spilostethus pandurus is sometimes called an Indian milkweed bug in Asia, where this photo was taken. This photo shows the continued orange-red color on the underside of these insects, as well as the oblong black spiracles (air holes) on either outer side of the abdominal segments.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Nice ID, Eric! Location: Bang Krang, Thailand. Date: 12 July, 2023.
Indian milkweed bug (Spilostethus pandurus)
Spilostethus pandurus (no specific common name), adult and nymph (immature), subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
Spilostethus pandurus is found from China through southern Asia and into Europe. This photo shows the adult trailed by a nymph.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Nice ID, Eric! Location: Bang Krang, Thailand. Date: 29 August, 2023.
Insect facts
□ Common names can be confusing. For instance, the common name “milkweed bug” may be used for several species. This is where scientific names are especially useful: each species has its own scientific name.
Darth Maul Bug (Spilostethus hospes)
Darth Maul bug, Spilostethus hospes, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ This insect was previously more well-known as simply a large milkweed bug because feeds on the seeds of milkweed plants (in the genus Asclepias). That changed with the 1999 appearance of Darth Maul, a character in the Star Wars film franchise. The bug’s black and red coloration apparently reminded so many people of the Star Wars character that the name stuck, and it is now widely known as a Darth Maul bug.
Photographed by: Chris Simon. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Solomon Islands. Date: 3 November, 2020.
Chris found this bug on a fireplant (Euphorbia heterophylla) during a field trip to the Solomon Islands, which lie in the Pacific Ocean off the northeast coast of Australia.
Large milkweed bug (Spilostethus hospes)
Darth Maul bug, Spilostethus hospes, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ Besides eating milkweed seeds, the Darth Maul bug also eats seeds of other plants, including tomatoes and plants in the genus Euphorbia.
Photographed by: Diganta Rabha. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Goalpara district, Assam, India. Date: 16 June, 2021.
False Milkweed Bug (Lygaeus turcicus)
False milkweed bug, nymph (immature), Lygaeus turcicus, subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ This nymph of a false milkweed bug looks almost identical to a small milkweed bug (Lygaeus kalmii), but the latter has an additional row of smaller black spots on either side of the two large spots. To see the small milkweed bug nymph, click here (BugGuide).
□ To read a good story about the confusion between the false milkweed bug and the small milkweed bug click here (AmericanInsects.net).
Photographed and identified to genus by: Christopher Barger. Identified to species by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: East Tennessee, USA. Date: 15 August, 2020.
Seed Bug (Melacoryphus rubicollis)
Melacoryphus rubicollis (no specific common name), subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
Melacoryphus rubicollis can be identified by the red collar and red-edged “shoulders.” The closely related species Melacoryphus lateralis looks similar, but the red edge continues much farther down its sides, and it has a red blotch in the center-rear of its pronotum (the shield covering its thorax). To see Melacoryphus lateralis, click here (BugGuide).
Photographed by: Beverly McDonald. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: central Arizona, USA (see note below). Date: 25 April, 2020.
Beverly says, “Since the bug came out of pair of shorts at Walmart, it could have traveled from anywhere.”
A Seed Bug (Aethalotus nigriventris)
Aethalotus nigriventris (no specific common name), subfamily Lygaeinae, family Lygaeidae.
Aethalotus nigriventris is black with a red pronotum (the shield covering its thorax). In some individuals, the pronotum is nearly completely red except for a small black triangle at the rear (as shown here), but in others, the entire pronotum is red.
Photographed by: Eric Blehaut. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Bang Krang area of Thailand. Date: 15 August, 2023.
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False Chinch Bug (Nysius raphanus)
False chinch bug, Nysius raphanus, subfamily Orsillinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ The adult false chinch bug feeds on plant juices, and in the heat of summer when other areas of dried out, they will move into irrigated land to feed on juicier plants, such as grasses in lawns and plants on farms.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Nicely done, Eric! Location: Lille, France. Date: 22 June, 2023.
False Chinch Bugs (Nysius raphanus)
False chinch bugs, nymphs (immatures), Nysius raphanus, subfamily Orsillinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ These are likely nymphs of false chinch bugs. As seen, they can occur in large numbers. See the photographer’s comment below.
□ For more information about false chinch bugs, click here (Colorado State University Extension).
Photographed and identified by: Anonymous. Location: East Valley Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Date: 21 December, 2021.
The photographer says, “It came in the millions yesterday late afternoon before dusk. Looked this morning and only found a few stragglers hanging out.”
False Chinch Bug (Nysius raphanus)
A seed bug in the genus Nysius, nymphs (immatures), possibly false chinch bug, Nysius raphanus, subfamily Orsillinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ The nymphs (immatures) of this genus are difficult to tell apart. This one may be a nymph of a false chinch bug (different from a true chinch bug, which is in a different family: Blissidae). False chinch bugs are pests in various mustard plants, sucking up the plant juices and harming the plants.
Photographed by: Fred Jepson. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Maricopa, Arizona, USA. Date: 4 April, 2020.
Seed Bug (Nysius spp.)
A seed bug in the genus Nysius, subfamily Orsillinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ The large eyes, the look of the antennae, and the swollen nature of the forelegs on this seed bug led Dr. H.M. Yeshwanth, an entomologist at the University of Agricultural Sciences in Bangalore, India, to tentatively identify this as a member of the genus Nysius. Without a clearer photo, however, he cannot rule out a different genus in this family, or possibly a species in either the Geocoridae family (known as the big-eyed bugs) or even the Coreidae family (the leaf-footed bugs).
Photographed by: Siddanth Sanil. Identified by: entomologist Dr. H.M. Yeshwanth of the University of Agricultural Sciences in Bangalore, India. Thank you, Dr. Yeshwanth! Location: Bangalore, India. Date: 9 December, 2017.
Siddanth says, “I found this insect in my hostel room in Bangalore, India. It’s grey in colour and is tiny and calm.”
Seed Bug (Nysius spp.)
A seed bug in the genus Nysius, subfamily Orsillinae, family Lygaeidae.
□ Like many seed bugs, this one has an oval silhouette and a triangular-shaped head with eyes positioned at two of the triangle’s corners. It might possibly either the species Nysius ericae or Nysius thymi (neither has a specific common name), which are both found in England, where this one was photographed.
Photographed by: Patrik Jano. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Leeds, England, UK. Date: 14 August, 2019.
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Insect facts
□ Humans breathe by taking in oxygen through the nose and mouth, and transporting it to the blood, which then delivers it to tissues. Insects have a more direct route: They take in oxygen through holes, called spiracles, on the thorax and abdomen, and transport it right to tissues.

Heterogastridae (the heterogastrid bugs)

Nettle ground bug (Heterogaster urticae)
Nettle ground bug, Heterogaster urticae, family Heterogastridae.
□ The adult nettle ground bug has an alternating black-and-white perimeter around its abdomen, as seen here. Nettle ground bugs may be mainly brown or gray.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Blehaut. Nicely done, Eric! Location: Lille, France. Date: 27 June, 2023.
Nettle ground bug (Heterogaster urticae)
Nettle ground bug, nymphs (immatures), Heterogaster urticae, family Heterogastridae.
□ Nymphs of nettle ground bugs may be green or reddish (as seen here) and have a row of black spots down the center of the abdomen, which sometimes blend together to look more like a black line.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Eddles. Location: Baffins Pond, Portsmouth, England, UK. Date: 11 August, 2020.
Nettle ground bug (Heterogaster urticae)
Nettle ground bug, nymph, Heterogaster urticae, family Heterogastridae.
□ The species name of the nettle ground bug is urticae. This refers to its host plant: the nettle, which is in the genus Urtica.
Photographed and identified by: Eric Eddles. Location: Baffins Pond, Portsmouth, England, UK. Date: 26 July, 2022.

Rhyparochromidae (the dirt-colored seed bugs)

Long-Necked Seed Bug (Myodocha serripes)
Long-necked seed bug, Myodocha serripes, subfamily Rhyparochrominae, family Rhyparochromidae.
□ One of the long-necked seed bug’s favorite foods is the seeds of strawberries, so they can occasionally become a pest of these fruits. This insect only grows to about 1 cm (3/8 inch) long.
Photographed by: Alex Pendjurin. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Washington, USA. Date: 18 May, 2017.
Long-Necked Seed Bug (Myodocha spp.)
A long-necked seed bug in the genus Myodocha, subfamily Rhyparochrominae, family Rhyparochromidae.
□ The long neck on this long-necked seed bug is very distinctive for this genus. Note: The family Rhyparochromidae was once listed as a subfamily under the family Lygaeidae, and is sometimes still listed that way.
Photographed by: Rochelle Koehler. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA. Date: spring or summer, 2019.
Rochelle says, “There were quite a few of them crawling along the concrete foundation in the back of my house in one area. They barely moved.”
Dirt-colored Seed Bug (Scolopostethus spp.)
A dirt-colored seed bug in the genus Scolopostethus, possibly Scolopostethus pictus (no specific common name), subfamily Rhyparochrominae, family Rhyparochromidae.
□ A common feature of this family of insects is the enlarged femur (“thigh”) of the front legs. This group also has antennae with four segments. This dirt-colored seed bug shows both characteristics: the enlarged femur and four-segmented antennae.
Photographed by: Kimberly Alvites. Identified by: KnowYourInsects.org. Location: London, England, UK. Date: 18 September, 2019.
Kimberly snapped this photo in her kitchen, where a group of these little insects had decided to pay a visit.
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